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Englishkitab >> Learning Course >> ELC-4th Day

ELC-4th Day - Chauthaa Din

4th Day - We shall learn about Tenses and Present Indefinite Tense. It is the most important part of learning English. It is appropriate to say that it is not possible to learn English without knowledge of Tenses.
Knowledge of 1st and 2nd day's topics and Helping Verb has laid down the foundation for learning Tenses easily.

Tenses - Kaal

In English language Tenses play an important role in sentence formation. Tenses shows (a) the time of an action, (b) its degree of completeness.

The verb may describe:

1 That an action is done at the Present time; as'I think about you'.
2 That an action is done in the Past time; as'I thought about you'.
3 That an action will be done in the Future time; as'I shall think about you'

An aspect of verb which tells the time of an action is called tense. There are mainly three kinds of tenses:

1. Present Tense
2. Past Tense
3. Future Tense

English meiN tenses (kaal) kaa bahut mahatvapoorN roll hai. Kaal bataataa hai (a) Kriyaa kaa samay, (b) Kriyaa kee poorNataa kee sthitee.

Kriyaa vyaakhyaa karatee hai:

1 Kaarya vartamaan kaal meiN sampann huaa hai; jaise 'MaiN tumhaare baare meiN sochataa hoon'.
2 Kaarya bhoot kaal meiN sampann huaa hai; jaise 'Maine tumhaare baare meiN sochaa'.
3 Kaarya bhavishya kaal meiN sampann huaa hai; jaise 'MaiN tumhaare baare meiN sochungaa'.

Verb kaa vah pehlu jo kriyaa kaa samay bataataa hai, Kaal kahlaataa hai. Kaal ke teen prakaar hai:

1. Vartamaan Kaal
2. Bhoot Kaal
3. Bhavishya Kaal

As per state of an action, each tenses are divided into four parts- Indefinite/Simple Tense, Continuous Tense, Perfect Tense and Perfect Continuous Tense

1 Indefinite/Simple Tense – which denotes its simplest form; as'I think','I thought','I shall think'.

2 Continuous Tense – which denotes that the event is still continuing or not completed so far; as'I am thinking' ,'I was thinking','I shall be thinking'.

3 Perfect Tense – which denotes that the event is in a completed or perfect state; as'I have thought','I had thought', 'I shall have thought'.

4 Perfect Continuous Tense – which denotes a time since when the event is continuing ; as'I have been thinking since morning','I had been thinking since morning','I shall have been thinking since morning'.

Kriyaa kee poorNataa kee sthitee ke anusaar, har Kaal ko chaar bhaago main baanTaa gayaa hai Saamaanya Kaal, ApoorN Kaal, PoorN Kaal aur PoorN Nirantar Kaal

1 Indefinite/Simple – Saamaanya Kaal – Jo bataataa hai kee kaarya ekdum saamaanya huaa hai; jaise 'MaiN sochataa hoon','Maine sochaa','MaiN sochungaa'.

2 Continuous Tense – ApoorN Kaal – Jo bataataa hai kee kaarya jaaree hai yaa abhee poorN nahee huaa hai; jaise 'MaiN soch rahaa hoon','MaiN soch rahaa thaa','MaiN soch rahaa hoongaa'.

3 Perfect Tense – PoorN Kaal – Jo bataataa hai kee kaarya poorN ho chukaa hai; jaise 'Maine soch liyaa hai','Maine soch liyaa thaa','Maine soch liyaa hogaa'.

4 Perfect Continuous Tense – PoorN Nirantar Kaal – Jo bataataa hai kee kaarya ek diye samay se jaaree hai; jaise 'MaiN subah se soch rahaa hoon','MaiN subah se soch rahaa thaa','MaiN subah se soch rahaa hoongaa'.

Each type of tenses has following four types of sentences:

1. Positive Sentence;
2. Negative Sentence;
3. Interrogative Sentence; and
4. Interrogative & Negative Sentence.

There are three forms of Verb. Different form of verb and different rules are used for making all types of sentences in each Tense.

Before proceeding to learn each Tense in detail, you may have a look on TENSE CHART which contains examples of all types of Tenses.

Present Indefinite (Simple) Tense

In Present Indefinite (Simple) Tense, the action is simply mentioned and there is nothing said about its completeness. It is used to express an action which happens on a regular basis.

Saamaanya Vartamaan Kaal meiN saamaanya kriyaa kaa hee jikra hotaa hai aur isame kriyaa kee poorNataa kee sthiti ke baare meiN kuchh bhi nahee kahaa jaataa. Lagataar yaa hameshaa honewaalee kriyaa ke liye isakaa prayog kiyaa jaataa hai.

Saamaanya Vartamaan Kaal ke neeche diye gaye vaakyo ko paDhiye aur Kriyaa par dhyaan dijiye:

Read carefully the following sentences of Present Indefinite Tense and pay attention on the action of Verb :

Vaakya Sentence
MaiN English seekhanaa chaahataa hoon. I want to learn English.
MaiN Ramjas school meiN paDhataa hoon. I study in Ramjas School.
Vah subah jaldee uThataa hai. He gets up early in the morning.
Ve subah der se uThate hai. They get up late in the morning.
Surya purva se nikalataa hai. The sun rises in the east.
MaiN school meiN paDhataa hoon. I study in School.
Vah college meiN paDhataa hai. He studies in college.
Kuttaa bhonkataa hai. Dog barks.
Kutte bhonkate hai. Dogs bark.
MaiN Gujarat meiN rahataa hoon. I live in Gujarat.
Vah apane maataa-pitaa kaa kahanaa maanatee hai. She obeys her parents.
PakShee subah chahchahaate hai. Birds chirp in the morning.
MaiN use roj paDhaata hoon. I teach her daily.
Vah har baat meiN mujhase paraamarsh karataa hai. He consults everything with me.
MaiN use bhali bhaanti jaantaa hoon. I know him very well.
Ham school ikaTThe jaate hai. We go to school together.
Satya kee sadaa jeet hotee hai. Truth always triumphs.
Vah roj paDhataa hai. He reads daily.
MaiN Gujarat meiN rahataa hoon. I live in Gujarat.
Tum paDhaai meiN dhyaan dete ho. You pay attention in study.
Netaa election ke dino meiN bhaaShan dete hai. Leaders deliver speech during election days.

In the above examples, we notice that neither action is continuous nor action is complete nor it seems one time action. These are usual actions which is done on a regular basis or eternal truths.

Present Indefinite Tense is used to express an action in present time, daily events & usual action which is done on a regular basis and for eternal truth.

UdahaaraN ke kisee bhee vaakya meiN Kriyaa naa to jaaree dikhaai detee hai, naa hee poorN dikhaai detee hai aur naa hee ek-aadh baar hone walee kriyaa dikhaai detee hai. Yah hameshaa hone waalee kriyaaye hai. Surya kaa poorv meiN uganaa ek shaashwat satya hai. School meiN paDhanaa, pakShee kaa chahchahaanaa, Gujarat meiN rahanaa aadi hameshaa kee baat hai. Ek baat note kareN - Vakyo ke ant meiN ‘taa hai’ tee hai’ or ‘te hai’ dikhaai de rahaa hai.

Hindi meiN Present Indefinite Tense kee pahachaan - Vaakya ke ant meiN ‘taa hai’ tee hai’ or ‘te hai’ kaa prayog hotaa hai. Vartamaan samay ke action ko bataane ke liye, daily routine aur hameshaa hone waale action ke liye isakaa prayog kiyaa jaataa hai.

In the above examples, we notice that first form of verb is used but in some sentences 's/es' is added with the verb (get-gets, study-studies, bark-barks).

There are different rules for all the four types of sentences of each Tense.

Upar udaaharaN meiN hamane dekhaa kee kriyaa kee pahalee form istemaal hui hai parantu kisee kisee vaakya meiN verb ke saath 's/es' (get-gets, study-studies, bark-barks) joDaa gayaa hai.

Har Kaal ke harek parakaar ke vaakya ke alag alag niyam hai.

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