Pronouns - Sarvnaam
A Pronoun is a word that takes the place of a Noun. In other words, Pronouns can be substituted for Nouns without
changing the meaning of the sentence. Pronouns are usually short words and are used to obviate repetition of nouns or noun phrases. A
Pronoun can perform all functions of a Noun and can be a subject, object or complement in a sentence.
Sarvanaam vah shabd hai jo Sangyaa kaa sthaan letaa hai. Doosare shabdoN meiN, Sangyaa ko vaakya kaa arth parivartit
huay binaa Sarvanaam se badalaa jaa sakataa hai. Aksar Pronoun chhoTe shabd hote haiN aur Noun yaa Noun phrase kee baar baar punaraavriti
ko door karate haiN. Noun ke saare kaarya Pronoun kar sakataa hai aur vaaya meiN Subject, Object yaa complement ban sakataa hai.
Let us see an example - How Pronoun make sentences short and simple.
Sentences without Pronouns : Vartika has a multi-talented robot. Avyan asked Vartika to give multi-talented robot to Avyan. Vartika loves the multi-talented robot so Vartika did not give multi-talented robot to Avyan. Vartika did not even obey the advice of Vartika's mother. Today also, Vartika plays with the multi-talented robot daily.
Nouns repeated in the above example are : Vartika, multi-talented robot and Avyan. The use of Pronouns obviate repetition of nouns.
Same sentences with Pronouns : Vartika has a multi-talented robot. Avyan asked her to give it to him. She loves it so she did not give it to him. She did not even obey the advice of her mother. Today also, she plays with it daily.
Often we do not use pronouns before small children because they may have difficulty in understanding which pronoun is used for which noun hence we repeat the complete noun in the sentence to make the child understand it properly.
Upar udaaharaN meiN hamane dekhaa ki kis prakaar Pronoun kaa prayog vaakya ko chhoTaa aur saral banaataa hai. Bahudhaa ham
chhoTe bachhoN ke saamane Pronoun kaa prayog nahee karate haiN kyonki unheN shaayad yah samajhane meiN kaThinaai ho ki kaun saa Pronoun
kis Noun ke liye prayukt huaa hai isliye ham bachhe ko achchhee tarah samajhaane ke liye vaakya meiN pooraa Noun baar-baar doharaate haiN.
Kinds of Pronoun
There are eight kinds of Pronouns.
Sarvanaam aath prakaar ke hote hai.
1. Personal Pronoun
2. Possessive Pronoun
3. Reflexive Pronoun
4. Demonstrative Pronoun
5. Relative pronoun
6. Interrogative Pronoun
7. Indefinite Pronoun
8. Distributive Pronoun
1. Personal Pronoun
Personal pronouns represent people or things. Personal Pronouns are of two types :
Personal Pronoun vyaktiyoN aur vastuoN kaa pratinidhitva karate haiN. Personal Pronoun do prakaar ke hote haiN:
1. Subjective Personal Pronouns: Pronouns that represent Subject of the Verb are Subjective Personal Pronouns.
2. Objective Personal Pronouns: Pronouns that represent Object of the sentence are Objective Personal Pronouns.
Personal Pronoun jo Subject kaa pratinidhitva kare Subjective Personal Pronoun hai aur jo Object kaa pratinidhitva kare vah Objective Personal Pronoun hai.
Look at the following examples for better understanding:
|Subjective Pronoun||Objective Pronoun|
|I||I am reading a book.||Me||Had you given the paper to me?|
|You||You are my best friend.||You||She may call you.|
|She||She is my sister.||Her||Don't break with her.|
|He||He has done his job.||Him||Give this book to him.|
|It||It may be kept in your drawer.||It||My wife has painted it.|
|We||We have won the match.||Us||They will inform us before time.|
|They||They are marching towards the Parliament.||Them||She made a complaint against them.|
Selection of Personal Pronoun
For choosing correct Personal Pronoun, we are to determine the following things:
Personal Pronoun chunane ke liye, hameN nimn baatoN ko taya karanaa hotaa hai:
Number - Two Numbers : Determine whether the noun to whom Personal Pronoun represents is singular or plural. If Personal Pronoun
is representing singular person or thing, Personal Pronoun will be singular otherwise it will be plural.
Dekho ki jis noun kaa pronoun pratinidhitva karataa hai vah singular hai yaa plural hai. Agar Personal Pronoun ek vyakti
yaa vastu kaa pratinidhitva karataa hai, Personal Pronoun singular hogaa anyathaa yah plural hogaa.
Person - Three Persons : Determine whether the noun to whom Personal Pronoun represents is of Ist Person, 2nd Person or 3rd Person.
Accordingly Personal Pronoun of that person will be selected.
Dekho ki jis noun kaa pronoun pratinidhitva karataa hai vah Ist Person, 2nd Person yaa 3rd Person kaa hai. Usee ke anusaar
Pronoun kaa person chayanit hogaa.
Gender - Three Genders : Determine whether the noun to whom Personal Pronoun represents is male, female or neuter. Accordingly Personal
Pronoun of that gender will be selected.(male - he, his, him; female - she, her; neuter - it, its)
Dekho ki jis noun kaa pronoun pratinidhitva karataa hai vah streeling, purling yaa napusakling kaa hai. Usee ke anusaar
Pronoun ke ling kaa nirdhaaraN hogaa (purling - he, his, him; streeling - she, her; napuskaling - it, its) .
Case - Three Cases : Determine the case of Pronoun. In English grammar, a noun's or a pronoun's case shows its relationship in some way to other words in a sentence. The
Main cases are - (1) Subjective Case or Nominative Case - Subjective Pronoun acts as the subject of a sentence;
(2) Objective Case - Objective Pronoun acts as the object of a sentence; and
(3) Possessive Case - Possessive Pronoun shows ownership.
Pronoun ke case ko dekho. English grammar meiN, noun kaa yaa pronoun kaa case isakaa sambandh kisee prakaar doosare shabdoN se darshaataa hai.
Mukhya cases haiN - (1) Subjective Case or Nominative Case - Subjective Pronoun vaakya meiN kartaa kaa roll adaa karataa hai;
(2) Objective Case - Objective Pronoun vaakya meiN Object kaa kaarya karataa hai; aur
(3) Possessive Case - Possessive Pronoun swaamitva darshaataa hai.
Look at the Table:
|Singular Pronoun||Ekvachan Sarvnaam|
|Plural Pronoun||Bahuvachan Sarvnaam|
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