ELC-1st Day - Pahalaa Din
|Ist Day - We shall start from the beginning. We shall learn main units of English sentence, types of sentences and Subject & Object. Knowledge of it is very important to learn and understand English easily.|
Main Units of English Sentence - English Vaakya kee Mukhya Ekaai
Letter - AkShar
Like other languages, English language has also letters, words and sentences.
English language has 26 letters. Out of 26 letters, 21 letters are consonants and 5 letters are vowels. Consonants are - B, C, D, F, G, H, J, K, L, M, N, P, Q, R, S, T, V, W, X, Y, Z and vowels are - A, E, I, O, U. These letters are also known as English alphabet. The written alphabets are in capital letters. The 26 English alphabets in small letters are – a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, t, u, v, w, x, y, z.
Doosaree bhashao kee tarah, English language meiN bhee akShar, shabd aur vaakya hote hai.
English bhaaShaa meiN 26 akShar hai. 26 akSharo meiN se, 21 akShar vyanjan hai and 5 akShar swar hai. Vyanjan akShar hai - B, C, D, F, G, H, J, K, L, M, N, P, Q, R, S, T, V, W, X, Y, Z aur swar akShar hai - A, E, I, O, U. English bhaaShaa meiN akSharo ko BaDe akShar (Capital letters) aur Chhote akShar (Small letters) dono meiN likhaa jaataa hai. Upar waale akShar BaDe akShar (Capital letters) hai. Chhote akShar (Small letters) is prakaar likhe jaate hai - Vyanjan akShar – a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, t, u, v, w, x, y, z.
swar akShar - a, e, i, o, u.
Words - Shabd
A group of letters which has some meaning is known as ‘Word’ e.g. ‘Lion’ has four letters L, I, O and N and it has a meaning. A group of letters like ‘Rdep’ or 'Mtpnd' which has no meaning is not a word.
Examples of words - Play, boy, girl, drink, dance, country, flag.
AkSharon kaa samooh, jisakaa koi saarthak arth ho, use shabd kahate hai.
UdahaaraN - Khelnaa, laDakaa, laDakee, desh, glass, aadee.
Sentence - Vaakya
A group of words which conveys a complete meaning is called a sentence. If a group of words does not convey any meaning, is not a sentence.
A complete sentence must contain a verb (verb is a word which shows some action). A sentence always begins with a capital letter and ends with a
full stop(.) or question mark (?) or an exclamation mark (!).
Shabdo ke samooh ko, jisakaa koi saarthak arth nikale, use vaakya kahate hai Vaakya meiN ek kriyaa (verb) jaroor honee chaahiye. English vaakya kaa pahalaa akShar Capital hotaa hai aur aakhir meiN full stop (.) yaa prashnwaachak chinh(?) yaa vismayabodhak chinh (!) aataa hai.
Kinds of Sentence - Vakyo ke prakaar
There are four kinds of Sentences. Description of each type of sentences and their examples are given in the table.
|Type of Sentence||Explanation||Examples|
|Assertive or Declarative Sentences||A sentence that makes a statement or assertion is called an assertive or declarative sentence.||He is an honest worker. She lives in Delhi. She is not my sister.|
|Interrogative Sentence||A sentence that asks a question is called an interrogative sentence. Interrogative sentence ends with a question mark(?).||What is your name? Which is your book? How is your brother? Who is not working?|
|Imperative Sentence||A sentence that expresses a command or request is called an imperative sentence. Imperative sentences are addressed without naming the subject. Hence subject is left out from the sentence.||Always obey your parents. Open the Door. Bring some food for me. Do not waste.|
|Exclamatory Sentence||A sentence that expresses strong feelings or emotions is called an exclamatory sentence. Exclamatory sentence ends with exclamation mark (!).||Hurrah! India won the match!, Wow!(impressed), Oh, what a shirt!(surprise)|
There are Affirmative and Negative sentences also. These are not a type of sentences. Assertive Sentence, Interrogative Sentence and Imperative Sentence can be both Affirmative Sentence and Negative Sentence. Examples of Negative sentences are given above in each type of sentence.
Vaakya Chaar prakaar ke hote hai. Inakaa sankShipt vivaraN aur udaaharaN table meiN diye hai.
|Vaakya ke prakaar||Vyakhya||Udaharan|
|Kathanvaachak Vaakya||Vah vaakya jisame koi kathan ho yaa jo varNan yaa vyaakhyaan kare, Kathanvaachak vaakya kahlaataa hai.||Vah ek imaandaar karamachaaree hai. Vah Delhi meiN rahtee hai. Vah meree bahan nahee hai.|
|Prashnavaachak Vaakya||Vah vaakya jo prashnA kare, Prashnavaachak vaakya kahlaataa hai.||Tumhaaraa naam kyaa hai? Tumhaaree pustak kaun see hai? Tumhaaraa bhai kaisaa hai? Kaun nahee so rahaa hai?|
|Aadeshaatmak Vaakya||Vah vaakya jo aadesh, updesh yaa nivedan kare, Aadeshaatmak vaakya kahlaataa hai.||Hameshaa apane maataa-pitaa kaa kahanaa maano. Darawaajaa kholo. Mere liye kuchh khaanaa laao. Barbaad mat karo.|
|Vismayaadibodhak Vaakya||Vah vaakya jo prabal ahsaas ya bhaavanaao kee abhivyakti kare, Vismayaadibodhak vaakya kahlaataa hai.||Hurrah! India match jeet gayaa. Wow! (prabhaavit), Oh, kyaa shirt hai! (aascharya)|
Sakaaraatmak aur Nakaaraatmat vaakya bhee hote hai. Yah vaakya ke mukhya prakaar nahee hai kyonki Sakaaraatmak vaakya and Nakaaraatmak vaakya Kathanvaachak Vaakya , Prashnavaachak Vaakya aur Aadeshaatmak Vaakya meiN bhee ho sakate hai. Nakaaraatmak
Vakyo kaa udaaharaN upar harek vaakyo meiN diyaa gayaa hai.
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