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Englishkitab >> Essential Grammar >> The-Participle

The Participle

A Participle is also one of the three types of Non-Finite Verbs. Participle is also a Verbal. (Words that are formed from verbs but don't act as verbs are called Verbal).

Words which have the features of both a Verb and an Adjective are called Participles.(e.g. playing, dancing, singing). A Participle is that form of the Verb which acts as an Adjective (An Adjective made from a Verb). Participle is also known as Verbal Adjective. The function of an adjective is to describe a noun or a pronoun. Therefore, a participle always describes a noun or a pronoun in the same sentence. In other words, A Participle is a form of a verb that is used in a sentence to modify a Noun or Noun phrase and plays a role of an Adjective.

Participle bhee Non-Finite verb ke teen prakaaro meiN se ek hai. Participle bhee ek Verbal hai.(Shabd jo verb se banaa ho parantu verb kee tarah kaarya nahee kare vah Verbal kahalaataa hai).

Aise shabd jinameN Verb aur Adjective (VisheshaN) dono ke lakShaN hote haiN, Participle kahlaate haiN. (Jaise - playing, dancing, singing). Participle kriyaa kaa vah roop hai jo Adjective kee tarah kaarya karataa hai (Kriyaa se banaayaa gayaa Adjective). Participle ko Verbal Adjective se bhee jaanaa jaataa hai. Ajective kaa kaarya Sangyaa yaa sarvanaam kaa varNan karanaa. Isliye, Participle hameshaa usee vaakya ke Sangyaa yaa Sarvanaam kaa varNan karataa hai. Doosare shabdoN meN, Participle kriyaa kaa vah roop hai jo vaakya meiN Noun yaa Noun phrase kee visheshataa bataataa hai aur ek VisheshaN kaa kirdaar nibhaataa hai

Word having features of Verb + Adjective = Participle

Look at the examples:
1. It is an interesting story.
2. It is a boring movie.

(a) In the above sentences, words - interesting and boring are made from verbs interest and bore respectively.
(b) In the first sentence, word 'interesting' is defining the Noun 'Story' and in second sentence 'boring' is defining Noun 'movie'. Therefore both the words - interesting and boring are acting as Adjective.

(a) Upar ke dono vaakyoN meN, shabd - interesting aur boring kriyaa shabd interest aur bore se bane huay haiN.
(b) Pahale vaakya meiN shabd 'interesting' Sangya 'Story' ko varNit kar rahaa hai aur doosare vaakya meiN 'boring' Sangya 'movie' kee vyaakhyaa kar rahaa hai. Isliye dono shabd - interesting aur boring, Adjective (VisheshaN) kaa kaarya kar rahe haiN.

Kinds of Participle

Participles are of three types - (1) Present Participle; (2) Perfect Participle; and (3)Past Participle

Participle teen prakaar ke hote haiN - (1) Present Participle; (2) Perfect Participle; aur (3)Past Participle
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Present Participle

Form - Infinitive Verb + Ing e.g. Running, Working, Going
Participle is used when there is one Subject for all the parts of the sentence and two or more than two actions are performed or two or more than two verbs are used When both/all the actions happen simultaneously or an action starts immediately after another action, then Present Participle is used.

Participle kaa prayog tab hotaa hai jab ek vaakya ke sabhee bhaagoN kaa ek Subject hotaa hai aur do yaa do se jyaadaa kaarya sampann hote haiN yaa do yaa do se jyaada Verb prayukt hote haiN. Jab dono/sabhee kaarya ek saath (simultaneously) sampann hote haiN yaa ek kaarya doosare kaarya ke turant baad sampann hotaa hai, tab Present Participle kaa prayog hotaa hai.

Examples

Avyan khel rahaa hai. Avyan is playing.
Yah ek majedaar khabar hai. It is an interesting news.
Vah ek table banaa rahaa hai. He is making a table.
Manager hone ke naate vah bhee Japan gayaa. Being a manager, he also went to Japan.

Perfect Participle

Form - Having + Past Participle e.g. Having done, Having worked, Having mailed

Participle is used when there is one Subject for all the parts of the sentence and two or more than two actions are performed or two or more than two verbs are used When one action is fully completed in the near past and then another action is started or stated to be completed, Perfect Participle is used.

Participle kaa prayog tab hotaa hai jab ek vaakya ke sabhee bhaagoN kaa ek Subject hotaa hai aur do yaa do se jyaadaa kaarya sampann hote hai yaa do yaa do se jyaada Verb prayukt hote haiN. Jab ek kaarya purN roop se kuchh hee samay pahale pooraa ho jaataa haiN aur usake baad doosaraa kaarya shuru hotaa hai yaa pooraa honey ko vyakt karataa hai tab Perfect Participle ka prayog hotaa hai.
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Examples

Apanaa Angrejee kaa uchchaaraN sudhaar kar usane apanee promotion kee sambhaavanaa baDhaa lee hai. Having improved his English pronunciation, he has increased the probability of his promotion.
Mail ko draft karake usane apane boss ko dikhaayaa. Having drafted the mail he showed it to his boss.
Juvaa khel kar usane sab kuchh ganvaa diyaa. Having played a gamble he lost everything.
Aaraam kar usane kaThin kaam jaaree rakhee. Having rested, he continued hard work.

Past Participle

Form - Infinitive + -d/-ed/-t/-en/-n e.g. Worked, broken, made, learnt, stolen

Past Participle indicates past or completed action or time. It is used to represent actions completed in past and not continuing in present.

Past Participle Bhootkaal yaa kisee kaaryaa yaa samay ke past meiN poora hone ko vyakt karataa hai. Yah Bhootkaal meN sampann huay kaarya ko vyakt karataa hai jo ab vartmaan meiN nahee chal rahaa hai.

Examples

Usane ek achchhaa bhaaShaN diyaa hai. He has delivered a good speech.
Usane meraa patra nahee paDhaa thaa. She had not read my letter.
Tumane apanee transfer ke liye likhit arjee dee hai. You have given a written application for your transfer.
Maine English seekh lee hai. I have learnt English.


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