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Englishkitab >> Learning Course >> ELC-8th Day

ELC-8th Day - AaThavaaN Din

8th Day - We shall learn about Present Perfect Continuous Tense. Sentences of actions which has started in past, still continuing and yet not completed come under Present Perfect Continuous Tense.

Present Perfect Continuous Tense

It is used to express an action which has started in past, still continuing and not completed so far. It is used to express a continued or ongoing action that started in past and is continued till now. In this tense, start time of action will always be given like - for a few days, for ten months, for 2 years, since Wednesday, since 2011, since September etc.

If start time of action is not given in the sentence, then it does not come under Present Perfect Continuous Tense. 'Start time of action' is the main factor which differentiates between Present Continuous Tense and Present Perfect Continuous Tense. e.g.

It is drizzling outsite - Present Continuous Tense.
It has been drizzling outside since morning. - Present Perfect Continuous Tense.
In the above example, only start time of action 'since morning' is the factor which is changing the tense of the sentence.


Aise kaarya yaa action jo bhoot kaal meiN shuru ho, lagaataar jaaree hai aur abhee tak poorN nahee huay hai, Present Perfect Continuous Tense ke antargat aate haiN. Hindi meiN isakee pahachaan hai – vaakya ke ant meiN ‘rahaa hai’, ‘rahee hai’, ‘rahe hai’ kaa prayog hotaa hai. Parantu aise vaakyo meiN kaarya shuru hone ke samay kaa prayog jarooree hai.

Vah vaakya jahaaN kaarya shuru hone kaa vigat samay diyaa huaa ho aur action lagaataar chal rahaa ho aur vaakya ke ant meiN ‘rahaa hai’, ‘rahee hai’, ‘rahe hai’ ho, to vah Present Perfect Continuous Tense hai. Agar vigat samay nahee diyaa huaa hai to vah vaakya Present Continuous Tense hai. Vaakya meiN kaarya shuru hone ke samay kaa prayog hee Present Continuous aur Present Perfect Continuous tense meiN fark (difference) bataataa hai.

jaise - Baahar boondaa baandee ho rahee hai. - Present Continuous Tense.
Baahar boondaa baandee subah se ho rahee hai. – Present Perfect Continuous Tense.
(Is udaaharaN meiN kaarya shuru hone kaa samay "subah se" mukhya hai jo Tense ko badal rahaa hai.)

Present Perfect Continuous Tense - Positive

Present Perfect Continuous Tense - Positive
Type of Sentence Rule
Positive Subject + Has/Have + been + Verb (Ist form) + Ing + Object + For/Since + Time + Remaining + (.)

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In Present Perfect Continuous Tense, helping verb 'has been / have been' is used and 'Ing' is added with first form of Verb. For time 'Since or For' is used. Word “Since’ is used when time mentioned in the sentence is certain and ‘For’ is used when time mentioned in the sentence is not certain.

Present Perfect Continuous Tense meiN sahaayak kriyaa 'has been / have been' kaa prayog hotaa hai aur verb kee first form ke saath 'Ing' joDaa jaataa hai. Vaakya meiN diye huay time ke liye 'Since yaa For' kaa prayog hotaa hai. Agar time nishchit hai to ‘Since’ ka prayog karate hai aur agar time anishchit hai to ‘For’ kaa prayog karate hai.

Use of 'For' and 'Since'
"For" is applied before uncertain time:- "Since" is applied before certain time:-
Five hours, two hours, an hour 3 O'clock, 10 O'clock, 5 PM, 4 AM.
few days, four days, seven days Monday, Saturday, Sunday
two months, eight months March, June, December
One year, ten years 2011, 2012, 2013
for a long time Since long.
Yesterday, tomorrow, day after tomorrow
Morning, Evening, Night, Noon, Afternoon.
Birth, beginning, then, when

Present Perfect Continuous Tense - Positive MaiN subah teen baje se kitab paDh rahaa hoon.
Person Subject Has/Have Been + Verb(Ist Form) + Ing + Object Since / For Time + Remaining
Ist person I have been studying this book since 3 o'clock.
Ist Person -Plural We have been studying this book since 3 o'clock.
2nd Person You have been studying this book since 3 o'clock.
3rd Person -Singular He/She/It/Ram has been studying this book since 3 o'clock.
3rd Person -Plural They/boys have been studying this book since 3 o'clock.

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Present Perfect Continuous Tense - Negative

Present Perfect Continuous Tense - Negative
Type of Sentence Rule
Negative Subject + Has/Have + Not + been + Verb (Ist form) + Ing + Object + For/Since + Time + Remaining + (.)

In Present Perfect Continuous Negative sentence, 'Not' is added between 'Has/Have' and 'Been'.

Present Perfect Continuous Negative vaakya meiN 'Not' ko 'Has/Have' aur 'Been' ke beech meiN lagaate hai.

Present Perfect Continuous Tense - Negative MaiN do ghanTe se nadee meiN nahee tair rahaa hoon.
Person Subject Has/Have + Not Been + Verb(Ist Form) + Ing + Object Since / For Time + Remaining
Ist person I have not been swimming in the river for two hours.
Ist Person -Plural We have not been swimming in the river for two hours.
2nd Person You have not been swimming in the river for two hours.
3rd Person -Singular He/She/It/Ram has not been swimming in the river for two hours.
3rd Person -Plural They/boys have not been swimming in the river for two hours.



Examples

Sentence Vaakya
Vartika has been playing since morning. Vartika subah se khel rahee hai.
Uncle has been living in Delhi since the birth of his son. Uncle apane beTe ke janam se Delhi meiN rah rahe hai.
It has been raining since night. Raat se varshaa ho rahee hai.
He has been preparing for the examination for last two years. Vah pichhale do saaloN se parikShaa kee taiyaaree kar rahaa hai.
He has been suffering from fever since Sunday. Use Ravivaar se bukhaar aa rahaa hai.
Seema has been waiting for her friend in garden for the last two hours. Seema park meiN apane dost kaa pichhale do ghanTe se intajaar kar rahee hai.

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