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Englishkitab >> Essential Grammar >> Direct-Indirect-Speech >> Direct-Indirect-Simple
Direct Indirect Speech
  1. Direct Indirect - Simple
  2. Direct Indirect - Interrogative Simple
  3. Direct Indirect - W-Family Interrogative
  4. Direct Indirect - Imperative
  5. Direct Indirect - Let
  6. Direct Indirect - Optative
  7. Direct Indirect - Exclamatory
  8. Direct Indirect - Miscellaneous

Direct-Indirect Speech - Simple Sentences

Example

Direct Speech Avyan said to Vartika, "I have broken my toys."
Indirect Speech Avyan told Vartika that he had broken his toys.

From the above example, broadly it comes to knowledge that for changing Direct Speech to Indirect Speech, we are to (i) Use a word to join both the parts like 'that' is used here; (ii) Remove Inverted Commas; (iii) Change the Pronoun; and (iv) Change the tense of Reported Speech.

Upar diye huay udaaharaN se moTe taur par yah samajh meiN aataa hai kee Direct Speech ko Indirect Speech banaane ke liye (i) Direct Speech ke dono bhaago ko joDane ke liye kisee shabd kaa prayog hotaa hai jaise yahaaN 'that' ka prayog hotaa hai; (ii) Inverted Commas ko haTaa diyaa jaataa hai; (iii) Sarvanaam badalaa jaataa hai; aur (iv) Reported speech ke kaal meiN parivartan hotaa hai.

Rule No. 1

First of all see the Reporting Verb. If it is 'say, says, will say or said', in Indirect Speech also it will remain same 'say, says, will say or said'. If 'to' is added with the Reporting Verb then in Indirect Speech it will be changed as per the rule below:

(i) Say to - Tell (ii) Says to - Tells (iii) Will say to - Will tell (iv) Said to - Told

When 'to' is added with the Reporting Verb, Object will always be there and in Indirect Speech after 'Tell or Told', Object must come.

Sabse pahale Reporting Verb ko dekheN. Yadi yah 'say, says, will say or said' hai to Indirect Speech meiN bhee 'say, says, will say or said' aparivartit rahenge. Yadi Reporting Verb ke saath 'to' lagaa ho to Indirect Speech meiN yah is prakaar parivartit honge:

(i) Say to - Tell (ii) Says to - Tells (iii) Will say to - Will tell (iv) Said to - Told

Jab Reporting Verb ke saath 'to' lagataa hai to vahaaN Object avashya hogaa aur Indirect Speech meiN 'Tell yaa Told' ke baad Object avashya aayegaa.

Rule No. 2

See the Tense of Reported Verb. If Tense of Reported Verb is Past Tense then in Indirect Speech Tense of Reported Speech is changed to Past Tense as per Rule given below:

Reported Verb ke Tense ko dekheN. Yadi Reported Verb kaa Tense Past Tense ho to Reported Speech ke saare Tense is niyam se badalate hai:

Reported Speech Tense in Direct Speech Reported Speech Tense in Indirect Speech
Simple Present Simple Past
Present Indefinite Past Indefinite
Present Continuous Past Continuous
Present Perfect Past Perfect
Present Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Continuous
Past Indefinite Past Perfect
Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous
Past Perfect No change of Tense
Past Perfect Continuous No change of Tense
Will/Shall in Future Tense Would/Should (Should with Pronoun 'I' & 'We' only)
Can Could
May Might
Could/Should/Would/Might No Change



Rule No. 3

When Reporting Verb is of Past Tense, then the following words of Reported Speech are changed as per below:

Jab Reporting Verb, Bhoot Kaal (Past Tense) kaa ho tab nimnalikhit Reported Speech ke shabdoN ko nimnprakaar se badalaa jaataa hai:

Direct Speech Indirect Speech
Ago Before
Hence Thence
Here There
Hither Thither
Last night The previous night
Last week The previous week
Next week The following week
Now Then
The day before yesterday The day before the previous day
The last fortnight The previous fortnight.
These Those
This That
Thus So
Today That day
Tomorrow The next day
Tonight That night
Yesterday The previous day

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Rule No. 4

If Tense of Reporting Verb is either Present Tense or Future Tense, we do not make change in the Tense of Reported Speech.

Jab Reporting Verb kaa Tense Present Tense yaa Future Tense ho to Reported Speech ke Tense meiN koi parivartan nahee karate hai.

Rule No. 5

If any Universal Truth, Proverb, Habitual Act, Historical Fact, Unchanged Facts, or Imaginary Condition comes in Reported Speech, then Tense of Reported Speech does not change even if Reported Verb is of Past Tense.

Yadi koi Sarvakaalik satya, Kahaavat, Aadatan kriyaa, Etihaasik Tathya, Aparivartit tathya yaa Kaalpanik sthiti Reported Speech meiN aaye tab Reported Speech kaa Tense nahee badalataa hai chaahe Reported Verb Bhoot Kaal kaa ho.

Rule No. 6

In all simple tenses, Comma (,) and Inverted Commas ("...") are removed and word 'That' is used to join both the parts.

Sabhee simple tenses meiN Comma (,) aur Inverted Commas ("...") ko haTaa kar shabd 'That' kaa prayog dono bhaago ko joDane meiN karate hai.

Rule No. 7

For changing to Indirect Speech, Pronouns of Reported Speech are changed as per "S O N = 1 2 3" Rule.

S = Subject 1 = First Person
O = Object 2 = Second Person
N = No Change 3 = Third Person

If Person of Pronoun of Reported Speech is___ Rule Change the Person of Pronoun as per Reporting Verb's___
First Person S Subject
Second Person O Object
Third Person N No Change

Indirect Speech meiN parivartan hone par Reported Speech ke Pronouns ko "S O N = 1 2 3" ke rule se parivartan karate hai.

Person Nominative Case Objective Case Possessive Case Reflexive Case
Ist Person I MaiN My Meraa Me Mujhe Myself MaiN apane aap
Ist Person We Ham Our Hamaaraa Us Hame Ourselves Ham apane aap
2nd Person You Tum Your Tumhaaraa You Tumhe Yourself Tum apane aap
3rd Person He Vah His Usakaa Him Use Himself Vah apane aap
3rd Person She Vah Her Usakaa Her Use Herself Vah apane aap
3rd Person They Vey Their Unakaa Them Unako Themselves Ve apane aap

Examples
1. She says to Kanika, "I will teach you and Avyan."
1. She tells Kanika that she will teach her and Avyan.

2. Avyan said to Swati, "I will give my toys to you."
2. Avyan told Swati that he would give his toys to her.

3. They said to me, "We have given our share to you"
3. They told me that they had given their share to me.

4. We will say to Heena, "You have brought her paintings to show us and your Mom."
4. We will tell Heena that she has brought her paintings to show us and her Mom.

5. She said to Manav, "I am in love and I want you to protect me.
5. She told Manav that she was in love and she wanted him to protect her.

6. He said, "You did not give me his address."
6. He said that he had not given him his address. (Object is not there. Assumed it of 3rd Person)
6. He said that I had not given him his address.(Object is not there. Assumed it of Ist Person)
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Example No. Reported Verb's Pronouns of Reported Speech Change Person according to Reporting Verb's Person of it is... Changed Pronoun
Subject Object Pronouns Person
1 She Kanika I Ist S = Subject 3rd She
You 2nd O=Object 3rd Her
2 Avyan Swati I, My Ist S = Subject 3rd He, His
You 2nd O=Object 3rd Her
3 They Me We, Our Ist S = Subject 3rd They, Their
You 2nd O=Object Ist Me
4 We Heena You, Your 2nd O=Object 3rd She, Her
Her 3rd N=No Change 3rd Her
Us Ist S = Subject Ist Us
5 She Manav I Ist S = Subject 3rd She
You 2nd O=Object 3rd Him
Me Ist S = Subject 3rd Her
6 He No Object You 2nd O = Object No Object - treat 3rd *** He
Me Ist S=Subject 3rd Him
His 3rd N = No Change 3rd His

*** If Reporting Verb does not have 'Object', then for changing 2nd Person of Reporting Speech, we can assume any Person and make sentence accordingly. See example no 6.

*** Agar Reporting verb meiN 'Object' naa ho tab Reporting Speech ke 2nd person ko badalane ke liye ham koi bhee Person maan sakate hai aur vaakya banaa sakate hai. Dekho udaaharaN no. 6.

For changing Person, please note that if Person is plural, it will be changed to plural and if person is possessive, it will be changed to possessive pronouns. Helping Verbs of Reported Speech in Indirect Speech get changed as per changed Pronoun.

Person kaa parivartan karate samay yah dhyaan rakhe kee yadi person bahuvachan hai to parivartan bahuvachan meiN hogaa aur yadi person, possessive hai to yah possessive pronoun meiN parivartit hogaa. ApratyakSh kathan ke Reported Speech kee sahaayak kriyaye parivartit Pronoun ke anusaar badal jaatee hai - dekhe example no. 5 - 'am' is changed to 'was'.
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Examples of Simple Sentences

Direct Avyan ne apane paapaa se kahaa, "MaiN tum se pyaar karataa hoon." Avyan said to his father, "I love you."
Indirect Avyan ne apane paapaa se kahaa ki vah unase pyaar karataa thaa. Avyan told his father that he loved him
Direct Vartika ne Bhavin se kahaa, "MaiN tumhaaraa akhbaar paDh rahee hoon." Vartika said to Bhavin, "I am reading your newspaper."
Indirect Vartika ne Bhavin se kahaa ki vah unakaa akhbaar paDh rahee thee. Vartika told Bhavin that she was reading his newspaper.
Direct Kanika kahtee hai, "MaiN swasth hoon." Kanika says, "I am well"
Indirect Kanika kahtee hai ki vah swasth hai. Kanika tells that she is well.
Direct Vah apane pati se kahegee, "Ravinder ne apanee patnee se Theek bartaav nahee kiyaa." She will say to her husband, "Ravinder did not treat his wife fairly."
Indirect Vah apane pati se kahegee ki Ravinder ne apanee patnee se Theek bartaav nahee kiyaa thaa. She will tell her husband that Ravinder did not treat his wife fairly.
Direct Usane kahaa, "MaiN tumhaare parivaar ko achchhee tarah jaanatee hoon. MaiN tumhaare daadaajee ko bhee jaanatee hoon." She Said, "I know your family very well. I know your grandfather also."
Indirect Usane kahaa ki vah usake parivaar ko achchhee tarah jaanatee hai. Vah usake daadaajee ko bhee jaanatee hai. She said that she knew his family very well. She knew his grandfather also.
Direct Adhyaapak ne vidhyaartheo se kahaa, "Surya pashchim meiN ast hotaa hai." Teacher said to students, "The sun sets in the west."
Indirect Adhyaapak ne vidhyaartheo se kahaa ki surya paschim meiN ast hotaa hai. Teacher told students that the sun sets in the west.
Direct Neha ne Shantur se kahaa, "Imaandari sabase achchhee neeti hai." Neha said to Shantur, "Honesty is the best policy."
Indirect Neha ne Shantur se kahaa ki imaandaari sabase achchhee neeti hai. Neha told Shantur that Honesty is the best policy.
Direct Manav ne Jai se kahaa, "Tum subah se cricket khel rahe ho." Manav said to Jai, "You have been playing cricket since morning."
Indirect Manav ne Jai se kahaa ki vah subah se cricket khel rahaa thaa. Manav told Jai that he had been playing cricket since morning.
Direct Shalini ne Rajeev se kahaa, "Tumane kal meree madad kee." Shalini said to Rajeev, "You have helped me yesterday."
Indirect Shalini ne Rajeev se kahaa ki usane ek din pahale usakee madad kee thee. Shalini told Rajeev that he had helped her the previous day.
Direct Gupta jee ne mujhe kahaa, "Tumhe tumhaaraa padonnity patra kal milegaa." Gupta jee said to me, "You will get your promotion letter tomorrow."
Indirect Gupta jee ne mujhase kahaa ki mujhe meraa padonnity patra agale din milegaa. Gupta jee told me that I would get my promotion letter the next day.
Direct Usane kahaa, "Mr Obama USA ke President hai." He said, "Mr Obama is the President of the USA."
Indirect Usane kahaa ki Mr Obama USA ke President hai. (Tathya meiN koi parivartan nahee hai isliye Tense nahee badalaa) He said that Mr Obama is the President of the USA. (Unchanged fact, hence Tense is not changed)


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