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Englishkitab >> Essential Grammar >> Conditional-Sentences

Conditional Sentences

In Conditional Sentences, one part states about certain conditions, and another main part describes about completion or non completion of the condition. In grammatical words, conditional sentences have two clauses:

(1) 'IF Clause' -which states about condition and
(2) 'Main / Principal Clause' -which describes completion or non completion of the condition.

Conditional vaakyo meiN ek bhaag condition (shart) ko vyakt karataa hai aur doosaraa bhaag us shart ke pooraa hone yaa naa hone ko vyakt karataa hai. Grammar ke shabdoN meiN - conditional vaakyo meiN saamaanyata do clause hotee hai (1) 'If Clause' - jo condition (shart) ko vyakt karatee hai and (2) Main / Principal Clause' - jo shart ke pooraa hone yaa naa hone ke baare meiN bataatee hai.

Conditional sentences can be described in mainly three parts:
1. When 'If clause' is in Present tense
2. When 'If Clause' is in Past tense
3 When 'If Clause' is in Future tense.

Conditional vaakyo ko mukhya roop se teen bhaago meiN baanTaa jaa sakataa hai:
1. Jab 'If clause' Vartamaan kaal meiN ho
2. Jab 'If Clause' Bhoot kaal meiN ho
3. Jab 'If Clause' Bhavishya kaal meiN ho

'If Clause' in Present Tense or Future Tense

The part of sentence which states condition i.e. 'If Clause' is translated in Present Tense whether it is of Present Tense or Future Tense. Principal clause can be either of present or future. In such Conditional sentences, Future Tense is used only once and that is in Principal clause.

Hindi meiN vaakya kaa jo bhaag condition prakat kare vah chaahe Present Tense meiN ho athwaa Future Tense meN, English meiN use Present Tense meiN hee banaayaa jaataa hai. Mukhya bhaag future yaa present meiN se koi bhee ho sakataa hai. Is prakaar ke Conditional vaakyo meiN do baar Future Tense kaa prayog nahee hotaa hai.

Examples

Yadi tum office jaao to meree salary le lenaa. If you go to office, please take my salary.
Yadi aap petrol ko khule meiN rakho to yah uD jaataa hai. If you keep petrol in open, it evaporates.
Yadi kisee bhee cheej kee kamee hotee hai to usakee keemat baDh jaatee hai. If there is shortage of anything, its price goes up.
Yadi barsaat aatee hai to vah ghar par hee rahegaa. If it rains, he will remain at home.
Yadi tum jaldee karoge to gaaDee pakaD loge. If you make haste, you will catch the train.
Yadi tum lagaataar vyayaam karate ho to apane aapako tandrust rakhate ho. If you do exercise regularly, you keep yourself fit.
Agar dhundh baDhatee hai to uDaane late hotee hai. If fog gets thicker, flights get late.
Yadi tum Mahima ko DhoonDh rahe ho to tumhe vah apanee Daadi ke paas mil sakatee hai. If you are looking for Mahima, you may find her with her Daadi.
Yadi tum car khareedane jaa rahe ho to maiN salaah doongaa kee lambee car mat khareedanaa. If you are going to buy a car, I will suggest not to buy a Sedan car.
Is vakt yadi tum paidal jaaoge to jaldee pahunch jaaoge. At this time if you go on foot, you will reach early.
Yadi aapane khaanaa khaa liyaa hai to driver aapako pick kar legaa. If you have finished lunch, driver will pick you up.
Yadi Avyan ne homework pooraa kar liyaa hai, maiN use park meiN khelane jaane kee ijaajat de doongaa. If Avyan has completed homework fully, I will allow him to go to play in the garden.
Yadi aapane Akshardhaam nahee dekhaa hai to ham vahaaN jaayenge. If you have not seen the Akshardhaam, we would go there.

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'If Clause' in Past Tense

'If Clause' is in Past Tense using auxiliary verb 'Had' (I had an umbrella), and Main Clause describes about something which was to happen or expected to happen but has not happened, 'Would' is used in Principal Clause.

'If Clause' bhoot kaal meiN 'auxiliary verb 'Had' (Mere paas chhataree thee) se banaa ho aur 'Main Clause' yah prakat kareN kee koi baat jo honee chaahiye thee yaa jisake hone kee aashaa thee, vaha nahee hui, tab Principal Clause meiN 'Would' kaa prayog karate hai.

Examples

Yadi mere paas car hotee to tumhe de detaa (Parantu mere paas car nahee hai). If I had a car, I would give it to you (But I have not a car).
Yadi pitaa jee ke paas paise hote to vah mujhe jaroor dete (Parantu pitaa jee ke paas paise nahee hai). If paapaa had money, he would surely give to me (But paapaa has not money).
Yadi chor unake kabje meiN hotaa to ve mujhe jaroor bataa dete (Parantu chor unake kabje meiN nahee hai). If they had thief in their custody, they would surely inform me (But the thief is not in their custody).

'If Clause' is in Past Indefinite and Main Clause is also in Past Indefinite. Such sentences indicate that second action has happend habitually/automatically. Ist part -If + Past Indefinite Tense and Main part is also in Past Indefinite Tense

'If Class' Past Indefinite meiN ho aur Mukhya bhaag bhee Past Indefinite meiN ho. Aise vaakya ek ke baad turant doosaraa kaarya habitually/automatically aadatan/apaneaap hone ko vyakt karate hai. Pahale bhaag meiN If + Past Indefinite Tense aur Mukhya bhaag meiN bhee Past Indefinite Tense kaa prayog karate hai.

Examples

Yadi kisee ne use chheDaa, usane use maar diyaa. If anybody teased him, he killed him.
Yadi teacher ne use Tokaa to vah bhaagaa. If teacher interrupted him he ran.
Yadi tumane bachcho ko London meiN maaraa, bachche police ke paas gaye. If you beat children in London, children went to police.

'If Clause' is in Past Indefinite and Main Clause expresses about future action. In such sentences, past tense of 'If Clause' is not actual past time or past action. 'If Clause' - If + Past Indefinite Tense and Main Clause - ..Would + Verb (Ist Form) used for translating sentence.
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'If Class' Past Indefinite meiN ho aur Main Clause future action ko darshaaye. Aise vaakyo meiN 'If Clause' meiN vaastavik bhoot kaal kaa samay yaa kriyaa (past action) ko suchit nahee karate. 'If Clause' meN If + Past Indefinite Tense aur Mukhya bhaag meiN ..Would + Verb (Ist form) kaa prayog karate hai.

Examples

Yadi usane meraa naam liyaa to maiN use nahee chhoDungaa (Parantu vah meraa naam lene kaa prayaas nahee karegaa). If he took my name, I would not leave him (But I don’t expect that he will try to take my name).
Yadi vah laDakaa mere kamare meiN aayaa to maiN jor se chillaaungee. If that boy came into my room, I would shout loudly.
Yadi usane is umra meiN baal kaale range to pratyek us par hansegaa. If he dyed his hair black at this age everyone would laugh at him
Yadi tumane meree shaadee kaa prastaav sweekaar nahee kiyaa to maiN jeevan bhar shaadee nahee karungaa. If you did not accept my proposal of marriage today, I would not marry whole life.

'If Clause' is in Past Perfect Tense. In such sentences, If + Past Perfect Tense is also used in 'If Clause' and ..Would have + Verb (3rd Form) is used in Principal Clause.

'If Clause' Past Perfect Tense meiN ho. Aise vaakyo meiN If + Past Perfect Tense kaa prayog 'If Clause' meiN aur ..Would have + Verb (3rd Form) kaa prayog Mukhya Clause meiN hotaa hai.


Examples

Yadi maine apane aap ko niyantrit nahee kiyaa hotaa to maiN use thappaD maar detaa. If I had not controlled myself, I would have slapped him.
Yadi ve mujhe bulaate to maiN shaadee meiN jaroor jaataa. If they had invited me, I would have definitely attended the marriage.
Yadi usane mujhe dhokhaa dene kaa prayaas kiyaa hotaa to maiN use barkhaast kar detaa. If he had tried to cheat me I would have fired him.
Yadi hamaare Rajaao ne kuchh dooradarshitaaa dikhaai hotee to ham duniyaa ko apane prabhutva meiN le lete. If our kings had shown some farsightedness, we would have taken the world in our domination.
Agar mujhe vah soochna pahale mil gai hotee to meiN use samundaree kinaare kabhee nahee jaane detaa. If I had received that news earlier, I would have never allowed him to go to sea shore.

In the above type of sentences, 'If + Subject + Had....' in 'If Clause' can be replaced by 'Had + Subject....'. The meaning of both remains same.

Upar waale vaakyo meiN 'If Clause' meiN 'If + Subject + Had....' ke sthaan par 'Had + Subject....' kaa bhee prayog kiyaa jaataa hai. Dono kaa arth saamaan hotaa hai.

Examples

Yadi maine apane aap ko niyantrit nahee kiyaa hotaa to maiN use thappaD maar detaa. Had I not controlled myself, I would have slapped him.
Yadi ve mujhe bulaate to maiN shaadee meiN jaroor jaataa. Had they invited me, I would have definitely attended the marriage.
Yadi usane mujhe dhokhaa dene kaa prayaas kiyaa hotaa to maiN use barkhaast kar detaa. Had he tried to cheat me I would have fired him.
Yadi hamaare Rajao ne dooradarshitaaa dikhaai hotee to ham duniyaa ko apane prabhutva meiN le lete. Had our Kings shown some farsightedness, we would have taken the world in our domination.
Agar mujhe vah soochna pahale mil gai hotee to maiN use samundaree kinaare kabhee nahee jaane detaa. Had I received that news earlier, I would have never allowed him to go to sea shore.



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