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Englishkitab >> Learning Course >> ELC-41st Day

ELC-41st Day - IkataaleesavaaN Din

41st Day - Today also we shall learn about Infinitives.
Infinitive is a form of Non-Finite Verb. It is used in most of the sentences hence its knowledge is necessary.

The Infinitive

The Infinitive is one of the three types of Non-Finite Verbs. A Non-Finite verb does not have subject, tense or number and it does not change its form according to the number and person of the subject.

Non-Finite verb ke teen prakaaro meiN se ek Infinitive hai. Non-Finite verb kaa subject yaa tense yaa number nahee hotaa hai aur yah apanee form subject ke number aur person ke anusaar nahee badalataa hai.

An Infinitive is a basic form of a verb but it does not act as a Verb. It is usually used with 'To' (To + Verb). It can be used without 'To' also (only Verb). Infinitive form with 'To' is called full Infinitive or To-Infinitive and Infinitive form without 'To' is called Bare Infinitive.

Infinitive (with 'To' or without 'To') acts as noun, adjective or adverb and does not act as a Verb. Since Infinitive does not act as a verb, we cannot add 's/es' or 'ed' or 'ing' to its end and it remains unchanged with any tense or with any number or person of subject.
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Infinitive verb kee mool form hai parantu yah verb kee tarah kaarya nahee karataa hai. Isakaa aaumtaur par 'To' (To+Verb) ke saath prayog hotaa hai. Yak binaa 'To' ke bhee prayukt ho sakataa hai. Infinitive 'To' ke saath full Infinitive yaa To-Infinitive kahalaataa hai aur binaa 'To' ke saath Bare Infinitive kahalaataa hai.

Infinitive ('To' ke saath yaa binaa 'To' ke) noun, adjective yaa adverb ke taur par kaarya karataa hai aur Verb kee tarah kaarya nahee karataa hai. Choonki Infinitive Verb kee tarah kaarya nahee karataaa hai, hum isake saath 's/es' or 'ed' or 'ing' nahee joD sakate hai aur yah kisee bhee tense yaa subject ke kisee bhee number yaa person ke saath aparivartit rahataa hai.

Hindi ke vaakya meiN jab verb kaa ant 'naa' meiN ho to ham us verb se pahale 'To' kaa prayog karate haiN.

The definition of Infinitive highlights mainly two points : (a) Infinitive verb form does not change according to Tense and Number & Person of Subject; and (b) Instead of acting as a Verb, Infinitive acts as a Subject or Noun or Adjective or Adverb. Let us understand both the points by seeing the examples:

Infinitive kee paribhaashaa two binduo ko spaShT karatee hai : (a)Infinitive kriyaa kee form Tense yaa Kartaa ke Number aur Person ke anusaar nahee badalatee hai; aur (b)Kiryaa kee bajaaye Infinitive Kartaa yaa Sangyaa yaa VisheshaN yaa Kriyaa-visheshaN kee tarah kaarya karataa hai. Aao dono binduo ko udaaharaNo ko dekhakar samajheN:
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Example - (a) Infinitive verb form does not change....

Vaakya Sentence Main Verb Infinitive
MaiN mareejo kee sewaa karanaa pasand karataa hooN. I like to serve patients. like to serve
Vah mareejo kee sewaa karanaa pasand karatee hai. She likes to serve patients. likes to serve
Usane mareejo kee sewaa karanaa pasand kiyaa hai. He has liked to serve patients. liked to serve
Vey mareejo kee sewaa karanaa pasand kar rahe hai. They are liking to serve patients. liking to serve
Ham kharch karane ke liye kamaate haiN. We earn to spend. earn to spend
Vah kharch karane ke liye kamaataa hai. He earns to spend. earns to spend
Unhone kharch karane ke liye kamaayaa hai. They have earned to spend. earned to spend
Vah kharch karane ke liye kamaa rahee hai. She is earning to spend. earning to spend

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From the above examples, it is apparent that Main verb's form keeps on changing as per Tense and Number & Person of the Subject. Infinitives 'to serve' and 'to spend' remained unchanged with all Subject and Tense.

Uparilikhit udaaharaNo se yah spaShT hai kee Mukhya Kriyaa kee form Tense aur Subject ke Number va Person ke anusaar badalatee rahatee hai. Infinitives 'to serve' aur 'to spend' sabhee Subject aur Tense ke saath aparivartit rahee.

Example - (b) Instead of acting as a Verb, Infinitive acts....

S.No. Vaakya Sentence Infinitive Infinitive acts as
1 Galatee karanaa maanaviya hai. To err is human. to err Subject
2 Petrol car sambhaalanaa bahut mahangaa hai. To maintain petrol car is very expensive. to maintain Subject
3 En cheenTee ko maaranaa bhee paap hai. To kill an ant is also a sin. to kill Subject
4 MaiN shikaar karanaa pasand karataa hooN. I like to hunt. to hunt Noun
5 MaiN khaanaa chaahataa hooN. I want to eat. to eat Noun
6 Vah beThanaa chaahatee hai. She wants to sit. to sit Noun
7 Mujhe nivarati kaa aanand lene kee aashaa hai. I hope to enjoy retirement. to enjoy Direct object
8 Main ghar par paDhaai karane ko pradhaanataa detaa hooN. I prefer to study at home. to study Direct object
9 MaiN sonaa pasand karataa hooN. I love to sleep. to sleep Direct object
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10 Meraa bhaai Thaharane ke liye aayaa hai. My brother has come to stay. to stay Adverb
11 Police adhikaaree madad karane ke liye vaapas aayaa. The police officer returned to help. to help Adverb
12 Mere jute use chamakaane ko do. Give him my shoes to polish. to polish Adverb
13 Usame chitrakaaree karane kee pratibhaa hai. She has an ability to paint. to paint Adjective
14 Usake paas barbaad karane ke liye paisaa nahee hai. She has no money to waste. to waste Adjective
15 Usake paas andar aane ke liye anumati nahee hai. She has no permission to enter. to enter Adjective
16 MaiN apane vichaar saajhaa karane ko ichchhuk hooN. I am willing to share my views. to share Modifying Adjective
17 Vah mujhe dekhane par chakit hui thee. She was shocked to see me. to see Modifying Adjective
18 Vah hamaaree company join karane ko aatur thee. She was eager to join our company. to join Modifying Adjective

From the above example, please note that Infinitive are used as Subject, Direct Object, Noun, Adverb and Adjective.

Uparilikhit udaaharaNo se note kareN ki Infinitive Subject, Direct Object, Noun, Adverb and Adjective kee tarah prayukt hote haiN.

Note kareN kee upar diye huay done prakaar ke udaaharaNo meiN Infinitive ke ant meiN 'naa' kaa prayog huaa hai.


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