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Modals
  1. May
  2. Might
  3. Can
  4. Could
  5. Shall/Will
  6. Should/Ought To
  7. Would
  8. Must
  9. Need
  10. Dare
  11. Used To

Can

'Can' is used to express physical capacity, capability and mental ability

'Can' kaa prayog shaareerik kShamataa, yogyataa evam maansik yogyataa ko vyakt karane ke liye kiyaa jaataa hai.

Examples

MaiN ek sthaan par binaa hile Dule 4 ghanTe khaDaa rah sakataa hooN. I can stand for four hours without moving at one spot.
Vah lagaataar 6 ghanTe paDh sakatee hai. She can study for six hours at a stretch.
Kyaa tum yah baksaa uThaa sakate ho? Can you lift this box?
Kaun is samasyaa ko hal kar sakataa hai? Who can solve this problem?
MaiN dhaaraapravaah Angrejee bol sakataa hooN. I can speak English fluently.
Vah 10 alag bhaaShaanye bol sakatee hai. She can speak 10 different languages.
MaiN binaa chashme ke akhabaar nahee paDh sakataa hooN. I cannot read newspaper without glasses.
MaiN nadi ke aarpaar tair sakataa hooN. I can swim across the river.
MaiN pahaaD kee choTee par chaDh sakataa hooN. I can climb on the hilltop.
Tum kaun saa vaadhya bajaa sakate ho? Which instrument can you play?
MaiN baansuree bajaa sakataa hooN. I can play flute.
Vah bahut kamjor hai. Vah kamare meiN bhee nahee chal sakatee hai. She is very weak. She cannot even walk in the room.
Kyaa tum mujhe ek hazaar rupaye udhaar de sakate ho? Can you lend me one thousand rupees?


'Can' is also used to seek or give permission and express possibility.

'Can' kaa prayog anumati lene/dene aur sambhaavanaa vyakt karane ke liye bhee kiyaa jaataa hai.

Examples

Kyaa maiN apanee car yahaaN khaDee kar sakataa hooN? Can I park my car here?
Tum apanee car khaDee kar sakate ho. You can park your car.
Vah ghar par ho sakataa hai. He can be at home.
Vah kisee bhee kShaN aa sakataa hai. He can come at any moment.
MaiN kaise tumhaaree madad kar sakataa hooN? How can I help you?
Kyaa yah samaachaar satya ho sakataa hai? Can this news be true?
Tum usake saath jaa sakatee ho par saat se pahale vaapas aa jaanaa. You can go with him but get back before seven.
Kyaa maiN chal sakataa hooN? Can I walk?
Kyaa maiN bol sakataa hooN? Can I speak?
Kyaa maiN kuchh samay aapake saath rah sakataa hooN. Can I stay with you for a while?

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'Can' is also used to express anger, impatience or astonishment of the speaker.

'Can' kaa prayog vaktaa ke krodh, adheerapan evam aashacharya ko vyakt karane ke liye bhee kiyaa jaataa hai.

Examples

Vah meraa prastaav kaise Thukaraa sakatee hai? How can she refuse my proposal?
Vah mere viruddh kaise jaa sakatee hai? How can she go against me?
Usake pitaajee kyaa kar sakate hai? What can her father do?
Vah apane aapako kahaaN chhupaa sakataa hai? Where can he hide himself?
Tum April ke pahale saptaah meiN kaise chhuTTee le sakate ho? How can you take leave during first week of April ?
MaiN sunishchit karungaa kee vah jaldee naa jaa sake. I will ensure that he cannot go early.
Tum apane adheenasth logo ko der se aane kee ijaajat kaise de sakate ho? How can you allow your subordinates to come late?
Vah doShee hai. Kaise koi use bachaa sakataa hai? He is guilty. How can anyone protect him?
Kyaa tum shorebhare vaataavaraN meiN so sakate ho? Can you sleep in a noisy environment?

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Difference between May & Can And May not & Cannot

'May' is used to express that he is allowed or permitted for something whereas 'Can' is used to express that he has right or has already agreed upon.

'May' kaa prayog kiyaa jaataa hai kee use kuchh karane kee anumati hai yaa ijaajat hai jabki 'Can' kaa prayog kiyaa jaataa hai ki usake paas adhikaar hai yaa pahale sahamati ho chukee hai.

'May not' is used to express improbability - means it appears that there is no possibility but still possibility exists. 'Cannot' is used to express that there is no possibility at all or it is impossible. 'Cannot' is a one word and 'May' & 'not' are two different words.

'May not' asambhaavanaa ko vyakt karane ke liye prayog kiyaa jaataa hai - matlab lagataa hai ki vahaaN koi sambhaavanaa nahee hai parantu phir bhee sambhaavanaa hai. 'Cannot' kaa prayog kiyaa jaataa hai ki vahaaN koi sambhaavanaa nahee hai aur yah asambhav hai.


Examples

Tum rangbhawan meiN pravesh kar sakate ho. (MaiN tumhe ijaajat de rahaa hooN parantu isakaa matlab yah nahee ki tumhaare paas rangbhawan meiN pravesh karane kaa adhikaar hai). You may enter in the auditorium. (I am allowing you but it does not mean that you have a right to enter in the auditorium)
Tum rangbhawan meiN pravesh kar sakate ho. (Tumhaare paas adhikaar hai kyonki tumhaare paas ticket hai). You can enter in the auditorium. (You have a right as you have ticket or organizers have already allowed you)
MaiN apnay makaan par doosaree manjil banaa sakataa hooN (Mujhe isakee ijaajat mil sakatee hai-pratibandh nahee hai). I may build top floor on my house. (I have permission to do so)
MaiN apnay makaan par doosaree manjil banaa sakataa hooN (Maine pahale hee nakshe meiN pass karawaa liyaa thaa). I can build second floor on my house. (I had already got it approved in original Map)
Yah khabar sach nahee ho sakatee hai. (Pooree tarah sambhaavanaa se inkaar nahee kiyaa jaa sakataa hai). This news may not be true. (possibility cannot be denied totally)
Yah khabar sach nahee ho sakatee hai.( Sambhaavanaa bilkul nahee hai - yah asambhav hai ki khabar sach ho sakatee hai). This news cannot be true. (possibility is totally ruled out - it is impossible that this news can be true.)
Sarkaar yahaaN paidal saDak paar karane waale pul banaane kee yojanaa banaa rahee hai parantu yah do saal meiN nahee ho sakataa hai.(Sambhaavanaa hai ki yah do saal meiN naa ho parantu 100 pratishat pakkaa nahee hai). Govt is planning to make a footbridge over here, but it may not happen for another two years. (It is possible that it may not happen for another two years but not 100% sure)
Sarkaar yahaaN paidal saDak paar karane waale pul banaane kee yojanaa banaa rahee hai parantu yah do saal meiN nahee ho sakataa hai.( Yah sambhav nahee hai aur yah do saal meiN pakkaa nahee hogaa). Govt is planning to make a footbridge over here, but it cannot happen for another two years. (It is not possible and surely it will not happen for another two years)


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