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Englishkitab >> Essential Grammar >> Active-Passive

Active Voice

Sentences can be Active or Passive. Correspondingly, Verbs are either Active or Passive in voice. The difference between Active voice and Passive voice is simple. So far the sentences we have learnt are of Active Voice wherein Subject performs the Action.

Vaakya Active bhee ho sakate hai or Passive bhee. Usee prakaar Kriyaa bhee Active yaa Passive hotee hai. Active aur Passive voice meiN antar bahut saral hai. Abhee tak Hamane jo vaakya seekheN hai ve Active Voice ke hai jiname Kartaa (Subject) dwaaraa action kiyaa jaataa hai.

In the Active Voice, there is a straight relationship between the Subject and Verb - the subject is a Do-er. In other words, the Subject actively performs the Action; the Object receives the action of the verb; and the focus is on Subject. e.g. Ram killed Raavan . Subject is Ram, active action "Killing" is performed by Subject "Ram" and Object "Raavan " receives the action and got killed. The focus is on Ram.

Active Voice meiN Kartaa aur Kriyaa meiN seedhaa sambandh hai - Kartaa Kaarya karane waalaa hai. Doosare shabdoN meN, Kartaa seedhe Kriyaa sampann karataa hai; Object 'Verb ke action' ko praapt karataa hai; aur kendra bindu Kartaa hotaa hai. e.g. Ram ne Raavan ko maaraa. Kartaa Ram hai, Kriyaa "Maarna" Kartaa "Ram" ne kee aur Object "Raavan " ne 'Verb ke action' "Maarna" ko praapt kiyaa aur maara gayaa. Kendra bindu Ram hai.

In the Passive Voice, the roles of Subject and Object are reversed - the Subject is NOT a Do-er. In other words, the Subject passively performs the action and receives the action of the Verb; Object of the active verb becomes Subject of the passive Verb; and the focus is on Action (not on the Subject). It is not important (or not known) who performs the action. e.g. Raavan was killed by Ram. Object of active voice sentence "Raavan " has become Subject, and main focus is on action "killed".

Passive Voice meiN Kartaa (Subject) aur Karm (Object) ke role vipreet ho jaate hai - Kartaa kaarya karane waalaa nahee hai. Doosare shabdoN meN, Kartaa nishkriya hai aur Kriyaa ke kaarya ko praapt kartaa hai; Active Kriyaa kaa Object passive Kriyaa kaa Subject ban jaataa hai; aur kendra bindu Kaarya hotaa hai (Kartaa nahee). Yah mahatvapoorN nahee hai kee kaarya kisane kiyaa. e.g. Raavan maara gayaa Ram dwaaraa. Active Voice vaakya kaa Object "Raavan " Subject ban gayaa hai aur kendra bindu kriyaa "maara gayaa" hai.

Look at the following Examples

Vaakya Sentence Voice Subject of the Sentence Action Performed By
Sachin cricket khel rahaa hai. Sachin is playing cricket Active Voice Sachin Subject
Cricket Sachin ke dwaaraa khelaa jaa rahaa hai. Cricket is being played by Sachin. Passive Voice Cricket Other than the Subject
John kitab paDhataa hai. John reads a book. Active Voice John Subject
Kitab John dwaaraa paDhee jaatee hai. A book is read by John. Passive Voice A Book Other than the Subject
Vartika bread khaa chukee hai. Vartika has eaten bread. Active Voice Vartika Subject
Bread Vartika dwaaraa khaai jaa chukee hai. Bread has been eaten by Vartika. Passive Voice Bread Other than the Subject
Vah unako peeT rahaa hai. He is beating them. Active Voice He Subject
Ve usake dwaaraa peeTe jaa rahe hai. They are being beaten by him. Passive Voice They Other than the Subject


In the above examples, Subject is not performing action in Passive Voice sentences instead action is performed by some other. The sentences in which :-
(i) It is directly stated that action is done by someone (other than the subject);
(ii) it is not stated or hidden who has performed the main action (other than the subject)
are Passive Voice sentences.

Uprilikhit udaaharaNo meN, Passive Voice ke vaakyo meiN Kartaa kaarya nahee kar rahaa hai bulki kaarya kisee aur ke dwaaraa kiyaa jaa rahaa hai. Ve vaakya jiname :-
(i) Seedhe likhaa hai kee kaarya kisee ke dwaaraa kiyaa gayaa hai (Kartaa ke alaawaa);
(ii) Nahee likhaa hai yaa chhipaa huaa hai kee kaarya kisee ke dwaaraa kiyaa gayaa hai (Kartaa ke alaawaa);
Passive Voice kahalaate hai.

Examples of Passive Voice

Passive Voice sentence (without Do-er Subject of Active Voice) raises a question in mind "By whom?"
Thesis likhee gai. >> kisake dwaaraa >> (Dr Hridaya dwaaraa)
Dr Hridaya ne thesis likhee.-Active Voice
Thesis Dr Hridaya dwaaraa likhee gai.-Passive Voice
The thesis was written. >> By whom >> (by Dr Hridaya)
Dr Hridaya wrote the thesis -Active Voice
A thesis was written by Dr Hridaya.-Passive Voice
Akhbaar paDhaa gayaa. >> Kisake dwaaraa >> (mere dwaaraa) Newspaper was read. >> By whom >> (by me)
Khaanaa pakaayaa jaa rahaa hai. >> Kisake dwaaraa >> (Heena dwaaraa) Food is being cooked. >> By whom >> (by Heena)
Jaadu dikhaayaa gayaa. >> Kisake dwaaraa >> (Jaadugar dwaaraa) Magic was shown. >> By whom >> (By the magician)
KhiDakee toDee gai hai. >> Kisake dwaaraa >> (choro dwaaraa) The window has been broken >> By whom >> (by thieves)
Telephone kaa aavishkaar kiyaa gayaa. >> kisake dwaaraa >> (Alexander Graham Bell dwaaraa) Telephone was invented. >> By whom >> (by Alexander Graham Bell)

Active Passive Rules
We will learn making Passive Voice of the following topics separately to gain better understanding.
  1. General Rules of Passive Voice
  2. Passive Voice of Present Indefinite Tense
  3. Passive Voice of Present Continuous Tense
  4. Passive Voice of Present Perfect Tense
  5. Passive Voice of Past Indefinite Tense
  6. Passive Voice of Past Continuous Tense
  7. Passive Voice of Past Perfect Tense
  8. Passive Voice of Future Indefinite Tense
  9. Passive Voice of Future Perfect Tense
  10. Passive Voice of W-Family Words
  11. Passive Voice of Imperative Sentence
  12. Passive Voice of Sentences of Modals
  13. Passive Voice of Sentences of Infinitives
  14. Passive Voice of Miscellaneous Sentences

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