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Englishkitab >> Learning Course >> ELC-31st Day

ELC-31st Day - IkateesavaaN Din

31st Day - After Tense and Active Passive, Direct & Indirect is the most important part of English Language. We are going to start this topic today.
We can report any Speech to another person either in the same words (known as Direct Speech or Direct Narration) OR report the speech in our words without changing the meaning (known as Indirect Speech or Indirect Narration).

Direct-Indirect Speech

Statement of a speaker or reporter is known as "Speech or Narration". We can report any Speech to another person in two ways:

(i) Report speaker's Speech to another person in the same words. It is known as Direct Speech or Direct Narration. In Direct Narration, the Speech is kept in Inverted Commas "I ...".

(ii) Report speaker's Speech to another person in our own words without changing the meaning of the Speech. It is known as Indirect Speech or Indirect Narration.

Kisee vakta kee kahee baat ko Kathan (Speech yaa Narration) Kahate hai. Kisee bhee kathan ko ham doosare vyakti ko do tareeke se bataa sakate hai:

(i) Vaktaa ke kathan ko jyon kaa tyon bataanaa. Ise Direct Speech yaa Direct Narration kahaa jaataa hai. Direct Speech ko Inverted Commas "MaiN ..." meiN band kiyaa jaataa hai.

(ii) Vaktaa ke kathan ke arth yaa aashayA ko badale binaa apane shabdoN meiN bataanaa. Ise Indirect Speech yaa Indirect Narration kahaa jaataa hai.
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Terminology of Direct-Indirect Speech

To understand the terminology of Direct-Indirect Speech, let us look at one example.

PratyakSh-ApratyakSh kathan kee shabdaavalee ko samajhane ke liye aaiye ek udaaharaN ko dekheN.

Example

Direct Speech Avyan said to Vartika, "I have broken my toys."
Indirect Speech Avyan told Vartika that he had broken his toys.
Reporter Vaktaa ko Reporter kahaa jaataa hai. YahaaN Avyan Reporter hai. Speaker is known as Reporter. Here Avyan is Reporter.
Reporting Verb Vaktaa dwaaraa prayukt verb ko Reporting Verb kahate hai. YahaaN 'said' Reporting Verb hai. Verb used by Reporter is Reporting Verb. Here 'said' is Reporting Verb.
Reported Speech Vaktaa dwaaraa kahaa gayaa kathan jo Inverted Commas "..." ke bheetar rahataa hai use Reported Speech kahate hai. YahaaN "I have broken my toys." Reported Speech hai. Yah hameshaa Capital Letter se shuru hotaa hai. Speaker's Speech which remains between Inverted Commas "..." is known as Reported Speech. Here "I have broken my toys." is Reported Speech. It is always started with Capital Letter.
Verb of Reported Speech Reported Speech meiN prayukt huay verb ko Reported Speech kaa verb kahate hai. UdahaaraN meiN yah 'broken' hai. Verb used in Reported Speech is known as Verb of Reported Speech. In the example it is 'broken'.

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Direct-Indirect Speech - Simple Sentences

From the above example, broadly it comes to knowledge that for changing Direct Speech to Indirect Speech, we are to (i) Use a word to join both the parts like 'that' is used here; (ii) Remove Inverted Commas; (iii) Change the Pronoun; and (iv) Change the tense of Reported Speech.

Upar diye huay udaaharaN se moTe taur par yah samajh meiN aataa hai kee Direct Speech ko Indirect Speech banaane ke liye (i) Direct Speech ke dono bhaago ko joDane ke liye kisee shabd kaa prayog hotaa hai jaise yahaaN 'that' ka prayog hotaa hai; (ii) Inverted Commas ko haTaa diyaa jaataa hai; (iii) Sarvanaam badalaa jaataa hai; aur (iv) Reported speech ke kaal meiN parivartan hotaa hai.

Rule No. 1

First of all see the Reporting Verb. If it is 'say, says, will say or said', in Indirect Speech also it will remain same 'say, says, will say or said'. If 'to' is added with the Reporting Verb then in Indirect Speech it will be changed as per the rule below:

(i) Say to - Tell (ii) Says to - Tells (iii) Will say to - Will tell (iv) Said to - Told

When 'to' is added with the Reporting Verb, Object will always be there and in Indirect Speech after 'Tell or Told', Object must come.

Sabse pahale Reporting Verb ko dekheN. Yadi yah 'say, says, will say or said' hai to Indirect Speech meiN bhee aparivartit 'say, says, will say or said' rahenge. Yadi Reporting Verb kay saath 'to' lagaa ho to Indirect Speech meiN yah is prakaar parivartit honge:

(i) Say to - Tell (ii) Says to - Tells (iii) Will say to - Will tell (iv) Said to - Told

Jab Reporting Verb ke saath 'to' lagataa hai to vahaaN Object avashya hogaa aur Indirect Speech meiN 'Tell yaa Told' ke baad Object avashya aayegaa.
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Rule No. 2

See the Tense of Reported Verb. If Tense of Reported Verb is Past Tense then in Indirect Speech Tense of Reported Speech is changed to Past Tense as per Rule given below:

Reported Verb ke Tense ko dekheN. Yadi Reported Verb kaa Tense Past Tense ho to Reported Speech ke saare Tense is niyam se badalate hai:

Reported Speech Tense in Direct Speech Reported Speech Tense in Indirect Speech
Simple Present Simple Past
Present Indefinite Past Indefinite
Present Continuous Past Continuous
Present Perfect Past Perfect
Present Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Continuous
Past Indefinite Past Perfect
Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous
Past Perfect No change of Tense
Past Perfect Continuous No change of Tense
Will/Shall in Future Tense Would/Should (Should with Pronoun 'I' & 'We' only)
Can Could
May Might
Could/Should/Would/Might No Change

Rule No. 3

When Reporting Verb is of Past Tense, then the following words of Reported Speech are changed as per below:

Jab Reporting Verb, Bhoot Kaal (Past Tense) kaa ho tab nimnalikhit Reported Speech ke shabdoN ko nimnprakaar se badalaa jaataa hai:

Direct Speech Indirect Speech
Ago Before
Hence Thence
Here There
Hither Thither
Last night The previous night
Last week The previous week
Next week The following week
Now Then
The day before yesterday The day before the previous day
The last fortnight The previous fortnight.
These Those
This That
Thus So
Today That day
Tomorrow The next day
Tonight That night
Yesterday The previous day

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Rule No. 4

If Tense of Reporting Verb is either Present Tense or Future Tense, we do not make change in the Tense of Reported Speech.

Jab Reporting Verb kaa Tense Present Tense yaa Future Tense ho to Reported Speech ke Tense meiN koi parivartan nahee karate hai.

Rule No. 5

If any Universal Truth, Proverb, Habitual Act, Historical Fact, Unchanged Facts, or Imaginary Condition comes in Reported Speech, then Tense of Reported Speech does not change even if Reported Verb is of Past Tense.

Yadi koi Sarvakaalik satya, Kahaavat, Aadatan kriyaa, Etihaasik Tathya, Aparivartit tathya yaa Kaalpanik sthiti Reported Speech meiN aaye tab Reported Speech kaa Tense nahee badalataa hai chaahe Reported Verb Bhoot Kaal kaa ho.

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