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Modals
  1. May
  2. Might
  3. Can
  4. Could
  5. Shall/Will
  6. Should/Ought To
  7. Would
  8. Must
  9. Need
  10. Dare
  11. Used To

Could

'Can' and 'Could' both can also be used for Request. 'Could' depicts more politeness and expectation is about 80-90%.

'Can' or 'Could' dono kaa prayog request hetu kiyaa jaa sakataa hai. 'Could' se jyaada namrataa jaahir hotee hai aur ummeed 80-90 pratishat hotee hai.

Examples

Kyaa tum mujhe apanaa pen de sakate ho? Can you give me your pen?
Kyaa tum apanee kursiyaaN udhaar de sakate ho? Could you lend me your chairs?
Kyaa tum mujhe achchhee websito ke link mail kar sakate ho? Could you please mail me the links of good websites?
Kyaa tum mujhe apanee nayee car de sakate ho? Could you please give me your new car?
Kyaa ab ham jaa sakate haiN? Could we go now?
Kyaa maiN tumhaaree pustakeN paDh sakataa hooN? Could I read your books?
Kyaa tum hamaare liye usake Thikaane ke baare meiN jaanch kar sakate ho? Could you please enquire about his whereabouts for us?
Kyaa tum hamaaree aur se prastaav aarambh kar sakate ho? Could you please initiate the proposal on our behalf?
Kyaa tum hamaaree mulaakaat pakkee kar sakate ho? Can you fix our meeting?
Kyaa tum mujhe ek glass paanee de sakate ho? Could you please give me a glass of water?


'Could' is used to express the ability of past. It is also used to express the necessity & ability of present and possibility (remote) also.

'Could' kaa prayog bhootkaal kee yogyataa, kShamataa aadee ko vyakt karane ke liye kiyaa jaataa hai. Vartamaan kee aavashyakataa aur kShamataa aur kam sambhaavanaa ko vyakt karane ke liye bhee 'could' kaa prayog hotaa hai.

Examples

Mere bachapan meiN maiN lagaataar chaar ghanTe dauD sakataa thaa. In my childhood, I could continuously run for four hours.
Jab maiN school meiN thaa, maiN ek samay meiN 20 kele khaa sakataa thaa. When I was at school, I could eat 20 bananas at one time.
Jab durghaTanaa hui tab vah chal bhee nahee sakataa thaa. He could not even walk when he met with an accident.
Meree jawaanee meiN maiN 100 kilo vajan uThaa sakataa thaa. In my young age I could have lifted 100 kg weight.
Jab Manjula young thee, vah 20 logo kaa khaanaa akele banaa sakatee thee. When Manjula was young, she could make meals for 20 persons alone.
Paintaalis kee umra tak maiN binaa chashame ke paDh sakataa thaa. I could read without glasses till the age of forty-five.
Mere school ke dino meiN maiN itanaa chust thaa ki murgee ko aasaanee se pakaD letaa thaa. During my school days, I was so active that I could catch the hen easily.
Ham samay par nahee pahunch sake. We could not reach on time.
MaiN usakaa prastaav nahee Thukaraa sakaa. I could not refuse her proposal.
Kyaa tum car chalaa sakate ho (agar jaroorat ho)? Could you drive the car (if it is required)?
Kyaa tum isase behatar naukaree praapt kar sakate ho? Could you get a job better than this?
Vah ghar par ho sakataa hai (sambhaavanaa bahut kam hai). He could be at home. (possibility is very less)
Kuchh bhee ho sakataa hai. Anything could happen.
Vah apane pati se sambandh vichchhed kar sakatee hai. She could breakup with her husband.
Vey samjhotaa kar sakate thay. They could compromise.

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'Could' is the past tense of 'Can'. 'Could' is also used to say something by emphasizing or pointing out in anger.

'Could' 'Can' kaa past tense hai. 'Could' kaa prayog kisee cheej ko jor dekar kahane yaa gusse meiN ingit karane ke liye bhee kiyaa jaata hai.

Examples

Avyan ne kahaa ki usake pitaajee July meiN Bharat aa sakate thay. Avyan told me that his father could come to India in July.
Usane kahaa ki vah nahee jaa sakataa thaa. He said that he could not go.
Usane kahaa ki vah sab jagah gaanaa gaa sakatee thee. She told that she could sing everywhere.
Tum usase samjhotaa karane kaa prayaas to kar sakatee ho. You could try to compromise with him.
Tum khush dikhane kaa prayatn to kar sakate ho. You could try to look happy.
Tum pakhawaaDe meiN kam se kam ek baar nahaa to sakate ho. You could take a bath at least once in a fortnight.
Tum apanee vishaal dhan daulat meiN se use 5 lakh to de sakate ho. You could give her 5 lakh from your huge wealth.
Tum mujh par ek chhotaa ehasaan to kar sakate ho. You could do a small favour to me.

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'Could have' is used to express past possibility which did not complete. It is also used to express imaginary situations. 'Cannot/Could not' is used to express impossibility.

'Could have' kaa prayog bhootkaal kee sambhaavanaa ko vyakt karataa hai jo purN nahee hui. Isaka prayog kaalpanik sthiti ko vyakt karane ke liye bhee kiyaa jaataa hai.'Cannot/Could not' kaa prayog asambhavataa ko vyakt karataa hai.

Examples

MaiN usakee chaal ko pahale samajh sakataa thaa.(Parantu maiN pahale nahee samajhaa) I could have sensed his move earlier. (but I did not sense earlier)
Vah use shuru meiN hee chetaavanee de sakatee thee. She could have warned him in the beginning.
Kabutar uDakar apanee jaan bachaa sakataa thaa. The pigeon could have saved his life by flying.
Vah use mil sakataa thaa agar usane chaahaa hotaa. He could have met him if he had desired.
Tum sambandh-vichchhed ko bachaane kaa sanket kar sakate thay. You could have given a hint to save the breakup.
Vah ThoDe se aur prayaas se kakShaa meiN shikhar par aa sakataa thaa. He could have topped the class with a little more efforts.
Agar usake paas pankh hote to vah mere ird-gird manDaraa sakatee thee. If she had wings, she could hover around me.
Agar mere pass aur saadhan hote to maiN is website meiN kam samay meiN jyaadaa english seekhane kee saamagree de sakaa hotaa. If I had more resources, I could have provided more matter to learn English in this website in less time.


MaiN kyaa kar sakataa thaa? What could I have done?
Usane yah khud nahee kiyaa ho sakataa. He could not have done this himself.
Vah utanee mahangee ghaDee nahee khareed sakataa. Usane jaroor ise churaayaa hogaa. He cannot have bought that expensive watch. He must have stolen it.
Mujhe lagataa hai vah Bikaner se hawaai jahaaj se aayaa hai. Nahee vah Bikaner se hawaai jahaaj se nahee aa sakataa kyonki Bikaner meiN airport nahee hai. I think he has come by air from Bikaner. No, he cannot come by air from Bikaner because Bikaner does not have an airport.
Vah mansaahaaree bhojan nahee le sakatee. Vah shuddh shaakaahaaree hai. She cannot take non-vegetarian food. She is a pure vegetarian.

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Will be able to

To express a meaning that the Subject will be capable to do (can do) something, 'Will be able to' is also used.

Kartaa kisee kaarya ko kar sakegaa ya karane ke yogya hogaa, ise vyakt karane ke liye 'Will be able to' kaa prayog bhee kiyaa jaata hai.

Examples

Do mahine meiN tum Angrejee bol sakoge. Within two months, you will be able to speak in English.
Vah 15 dino baad apana normal ghar kaa kaarya kar sakegee. She will be able to do her normal domestic work after 15 days.
Kyaa vah saDak par akele car chalaa sakegaa? Will he be able to drive car alone on a road?
Mera manager unako manaa sakegaa. My manager will be able to convince them.
Vah samajhotaa final nahee kar sakegee. She will not be able to finalize the contract.
Bujurg mahilaa bus meiN chaDh sakegee. The old woman will be able to climb the bus.


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