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Englishkitab >> Essential Grammar >> Direct-Indirect-Speech

Direct-Indirect Speech

Statement of a speaker or reporter is known as "Speech or Narration". We can report any Speech to another person in two ways:

(i) Report speaker's Speech to another person in the same words. It is known as Direct Speech or Direct Narration. In Direct Narration, the Speech is kept in Inverted Commas "I ...".

(ii) Report speaker's Speech to another person in our own words without changing the meaning of the Speech. It is known as Indirect Speech or Indirect Narration.


Kisee vakta kee kahee baat ko Kathan (Speech yaa Narration) Kahate hai. Kisee bhee kathan ko ham doosare vyakti ko do tareeke se bataa sakate hai:

(i) Vaktaa ke kathan ko jyon kaa tyon bataanaa. Ise Direct Speech yaa Direct Narration kahaa jaataa hai. Direct Speech ko Inverted Commas "MaiN ..." meiN band kiyaa jaataa hai.

(ii) Vaktaa ke kathan ke arth yaa aashayA ko badale binaa apane shabdoN meiN bataanaa. Ise Indirect Speech yaa Indirect Narration kahaa jaataa hai.

Terminology of Direct-Indirect Speech

To understand the terminology of Direct-Indirect Speech, let us look at one example.

PratyakSh-ApratyakSh kathan kee shabdaavalee ko samajhane ke liye aaiye ek udaaharaN ko dekheN.
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Example

Direct Speech Avyan said to Vartika, "I have broken my toys."
Indirect Speech Avyan told Vartika that he had broken his toys.
Reporter Vaktaa ko Reporter kahaa jaataa hai. YahaaN Avyan Reporter hai. Speaker is known as Reporter. Here Avyan is Reporter.
Reporting Verb Vaktaa dwaaraa prayukt verb ko Reporting Verb kahate hai. YahaaN 'said' Reporting Verb hai. Verb used by Reporter is Reporting Verb. Here 'said' is Reporting Verb.
Reported Speech Vaktaa dwaaraa kahaa gayaa kathan jo Inverted Commas "..." ke bheetar rahataa hai use Reported Speech kahate hai. YahaaN "I have broken my toys." Reported Speech hai. Yah hameshaa Capital Letter se shuru hotaa hai. Speaker's Speech which remains between Inverted Commas "..." is known as Reported Speech. Here "I have broken my toys." is Reported Speech. It is always started with Capital Letter.
Verb of Reported Speech Reported Speech meiN prayukt huay verb ko Reported Speech kaa verb kahate hai. UdahaaraN meiN yah 'broken' hai. Verb used in Reported Speech is known as Verb of Reported Speech. In the example it is 'broken'.

Direct Indirect Rules
We will learn making Indirect Speech of the following topics separately to gain better understanding.
  1. Direct Indirect - Simple
  2. Direct Indirect - Interrogative Simple
  3. Direct Indirect - W-Family Interrogative
  4. Direct Indirect - Imperative
  5. Direct Indirect - Let
  6. Direct Indirect - Optative
  7. Direct Indirect - Exclamatory
  8. Direct Indirect - Miscellaneous


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