The Verb - Kriyaa
A verb is a word used for saying something about a person or thing. A sentence is incomplete without a verb. Verb is the most important word in a sentence and every sentence
must have a verb. A Verb may describe:
A) What action a person or thing does -
e.g. She plays. He speaks. They laugh at fools.
B) What action is done to a person or thing -
e.g. The glass was broken. The bus was damaged. The building was repaired.
C) No action but indicates what a person or thing is -
e.g. He is sick. They are players. He is alive.
Kriyaa vah shabd hai jo kisee vyakti yaa vastu ke baabat kahane meiN proyog hotee hai. Kriyaa ke binaa vaakya adhuraa hai. Kriyaa ek vaakya kaa bahut mahatvapoorN shabd hai
aur sabhee vaakyo meiN verb jarooree hai. Kriyaa shabd kahataa hai:
A) Vyakti yaa vastu kyaa karataa hai -
e.g. Vah khelatee hai. Vah bolataa hai. Ve bewakoofo par hansate hai.
B) Vyakti yaa vastu ke saath kyaa action kiyaa gayaa -
e.g. Sheeshaa toDaa gayaa. Bus kShatigarst kee gai. Bhawan kee marammat kee gai.
C) Action nahee parantu vyakti yaa vastu kee sthiti ke baare meiN ingit kareN -
e.g. Vah beemaar hai. Ve khilaaDee hai. Vah jindaa hai.
Kinds of Verbs
|KINDS OF VERBS|
|Main Verbs||Auxiliary Verbs|
|Transitive - Intransitive Verbs||Dynamic-Stative Verbs||Regular - Irregular Verbs||Strong-Weak Verbs||Causative Verbs||Finite - Non-finite Verbs||Primary Auxiliary Verbs||Modals|
Verbs are subdivided into two main types:
(I) Main Verbs and (II) Auxiliary Verbs
Main verbs have major meaning in the sentences i.e. sleep, make, buy, finish, complete etc. Main Verb is any verb in English that isn't an auxiliary verb. It conveys a real meaning
and doesn't depend on another verb.
"He has bought four books." In this sentence, 'has' is an auxiliary verb and indicates that it is a Present Perfect Tense and 'bought' is main verb which is conveying real and main meaning of the sentence.
There are many kinds of main verbs. A verb can be of different types. Use of the verb describes the type of the Verb.
Kriyaa mukhyatah do prakaar kee hotee hai - (I) Mukhya Kriyaa aur (II) Sahaayak Kriya.
Mukhya verb kaa vaakya meiN baDaa arth hai jaise - sonaa, banaanaa, khareedanaa, khatam karanaa, pooraa karanaa ityaadee. Mukhya verb vah verb hai jo sahaayak verb nahee hai. Yah vaastvik arth bataataa hai aur kisee doosare verb par nirbhar nahee hai.
"He has bought four books." Is vaakya meiN 'has' sahaayak verb hai jo yah darshaataa hai kee yah Present Perfect Tense hai aur 'bought' mukhya verb hai jo vaastvik arth kahataa hai aur vaakya kaa main arth hai. Main verb kai prakaar ke hote hai. Ek verb kai prakaar kaa ho sakataa hai parantu isakaa prayog hee bataataa hai kee yah verb kaa kaun saa prakaar hai.
A verb which requires an object in a sentence to convey complete meaning is a Transitive Verb. In the absence of object, subject does not convey complete meaning.
e.g.: Kanika wrote "______".
Without an object the verb “wrote" does not give complete meaning. If we mention object in the sentence –Kanita wrote a letter or her name – makes it more meaningful.
Vah kriyaa jise vaakya meiN poore arth ko vyakt karane ke liye object kee jaroorat hotee hai, Transitive verb kahalaatee hai.
|Vah seb khaa rahee hai||She is eating an apple.|
|Usane paaTh samajh liyaa hai.||He has understood the lesson.|
|Usane apanee mammee ke liye nayaa mobile phone khareedaa.||He bought a new mobile phone for his mother.|
|Usane football ko laat maaree.||He kicked the football.|
|Avyan ne apanaa grihkaarya pooraa kar liyaa hai.||Avyan has completed his homework.|
|Kanika Vartika ko apane khilone de rahee hai.||Kanika is giving her toys to Vartika.|
A verb which does not require an object in a sentence is an Intransitive verb.
Intransitive verb can give complete meaning without an object in sentence for it.
Vah kriyaa jise vaakya meiN poore arth ko vyakt karane ke liye object kee jaroorat nahee paDatee, Intransitive verb kahalaatee hai.
|Kanika ro rahee hai.||Kanika is weeping.|
|Vah hans rahee hai.||She is laughing.|
|Barsaat hui hai.||It has rained.|
|Surya chamakataa hai.||The sun shines.|
|ChiDiyaa subah chahchahaatee hai.||Bird chirps in the morning.|
|Yah jal rahaa hai.||It is burning.|
Dynamic Verbs express a real action done by the subject. The action or result of the action can be seen or felt by the object or an indirect object.
Dynamic verb kartaa ke vaastvik action ko darshaatee hai. Kriyaa yaa kriyaa kaa pariNaam object par dekhaa yaa mehsoos kiyaa jaa sakataa hai.
|Vah cricket khel rahaa hai.||He is playing cricket.|
|Rajan ne laDaai laDee hai.||Rajan has fought a battle.|
|Mechanic ne car Theek kar dee hai.||The mechanic has repaired the car.|
|Dukaandaar ne dukaan band kar dee hai.||The shopkeeper has closed the shop.|
|Ramu ne farsh par pochhaa lagaa diyaa hai.||Ramu has mopped the floor.|
|Reema ne ek Gulab-jamun ko chhah dosto meiN baanT diyaa hai.||Reema has distributed a piece of Gulab-jamun among six friends.|
Stative verbs express a state, situation or condition rather than an action. Stative Verb describes about the state of mind of the subject, or the relation between the subject and the object. Stative verbs are usually not used in the progressive tenses.
Stative verb kriyaa ke bajaaye sthiti yaa dashaa ko darshaataa hai. Stative verb kartaa ke dimaag kee dashaa yaa kartaa aur object ke beech kaa sambandh bataataa hai.
|Vah usake pitaa jee ke baare meiN sab jaantaa hai.||He knows everything about her father.|
|Vah ek mahaan mahilaa hai.||She is a great woman.|
|Hamaare paas bhavishya ke liye kaafee bachat hai.||We have enough savings for future.|
|Tum ek sainik ho.||You are a soldier.|
Regular Verbs - Irregular Verbs
On the basis of forming base form of verb to past simple (2nd form) and past participle (3rd form), verb is divided into two type – Regular Verbs and Irregular Verbs.
Kriyaa ke doosare aur teesare roop (2nd form-Past simple and 3rd form-Past participle) ke aadhaar par verb ko do prakaar meiN baanTaa gayaa hai - Regular Verbs and Irregular Verbs.
Regular Verbs (Weak Verbs)
Regular Verbs are also known as Weak Verbs. The Verbs which form their past simple and past participle by adding “-ed" to their base form are called Regular Verbs -
for example work – worked - worked, allow – allowed - allowed, play – played – played.
|Usane ek sabhaa kee yojanaa banaai hai.||He has planned a meeting.|
|Kuttaa us par bhonkaa.||The dog barked at him.|
|Tiger aadamee ko apane jabaDe se kheench kar le gayaa hai.||The tiger has dragged away the man by its jaw.|
|Police ne search warrant jaaree kar diyaa hai.||Police has issued search warrant.|
|Usane apanaa sarvshreshTha diyaa hai.||He has delivered his best.|
Irregular Verbs (Strong Verbs)
Irregular Verbs are also known as Strong Verbs. The Verbs which form their past simple and past participle in different ways but most often by changing the vowel
of the Base form(Ist form) are called Irregular Verbs - for example, steal – stole – stolen, sleep – slept – slept, fight – fought - fought.
Verb ko second form aur third form meiN parivartit karane ke aadhaar par verb ko do bhaago meiN baanTaa jaataa hai - Regular Verb aur Irregular Verb. Jin verb ke pichhe '-ed' lagaa kar usakee form badalee jaa sakatee hai vah Regular Verb hai aur jin verb kee form alag tareeke se badalee jaatee hai vah Irregular Verb hai.
|PakShee aasmaan meiN uD gayaa.||The bird flew in the sky.|
|Usane paanch suit khareede thay.||She had bought five suits.|
|Vidyaarthio ne apane hak ke liye laDaai laDee hai.||The students have fought for their rights.|
|Usane apane vaayade ko nibhaayaa hai.||He has kept his words.|
|Netaao ne kai vaayade kiye hai.||The leaders have made number of promises.|
We will learn in detail about Causative Verbs in upcoming lessons.
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