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Englishkitab >> Essential Grammar >> Articles-A An Or The

Articles-A, An or The

An article is a word that describes or tell more about the Noun. It is used before the noun to show whether it refers to something specific or general. So, in a way, articles can also be described as a type of adjectives as they also tell us something about the nouns, like adjectives. Articles are also known as Determiners.

Article are of two types:
1 Indefinite Articles - A/An - Indicate to general things or persons. The things or persons which are not sure / not particular / not certain or not specific.

2 Definite Article - The - Indicate to particular things or persons. The things or persons which are certain / specific or particular.

Article vah shabd hai jo Noun ke baare meiN bataataa hai yaa vyaakhyaa karataa hai. Yah Noun se pahale yah bataane ke liye prayog hotaa hai kee Noun khaas / vishesh hai yaa nahee. Isliye, Article bhee ek prakaar kaa Adjective hai jo Noun ke baare meiN bataataa hai. Articles ko Determiners bhee kahaa jaataa hai

Articles do prakaar ke hote hai:
1 Indefinite Articles - A or An - Nishchit vastu, vyakti yaa sthaan kee taraf sanket nahee karate .

2 Definite Article - The - Kisee nishchit vastu, vyakti yaa sthaan kee taraf sanket karataa hai.

Article 'A/An'

A and an are the indefinite articles. In a sentence when Noun is Singular Countable Noun and it is not a definite, then Article A/An is used.

A aur An Anishchit articles hai. Vakyo meiN anishchit Singular Countable Noun se poorv Article A/An kaa prayog kiyaa jaataa hai.

Mere pass ek pen hai. I have a pen.
Vah ek artist hai. She is an artist.
Maine kal ek chhaataa khareedaa. I bought an umbrella yesterday.
Usane mujhe ek pyaaj diyaa. She gave me an onion.
Kyaa aapake paas pustak hai? Do you have a book?

Difference between 'A' and 'An'

‘A’ is used before a word (singular) beginning with a consonant or a vowel with consonant sound. Consonant letters in the English alphabet are B, C, D, F, G, H, J, K, L, M,N, P, Q, R, S, T, V,W, X,Y, Z.
For example: A boy, a girl, a pen, a book, a dog, a table, etc.

‘An’ is used before a word beginning with a vowel sound. Vowel letters in the English alphabet are A, E, I, O, U.
For example: An umbrella, an elephant, an apple, an orphan, an artist, etc.

Please Note that 'An' is used on the basis of vowel sound and not only on the basis of the starting vowel letter of the word.
For example: "An hour" , "An honest man"", "A young man"", "A house", "An heir", "A useful book", "An M.L.A", "An F.I.R.", "An X-ray", "An LL.B", "A husband", "An honour", "An year", "A one-rupee note", "An IAS" etc.

In the above examples, 'An' is used on the basis of sound’. The words 'hour', 'heir, and 'honest' both begin with a vowel sound, as the consonant 'h' is silent. Similarly, the word 'house' and 'useful' begins with the consonant sound of 'h' & 'yoo' hence 'A' is used before them.

'A' aur 'An' ke beech kyaa antar hai

'A' kaa prayog us singular noun shabd se pahale kiyaa jaataa hai jis shabd kaa pratham akShar vyanjan (consonant) hai yaa pratham akShar kee dhwanee swar nahee hai . English bhaaShaa meiN vyanjan akShar hai - B, C, D, F, G, H, J, K, L, M, N, P, Q, R, S, T, V, W, X, Y, Z.
For example: A boy, a girl, a pen, a book, a dog, a table, etc.

'An' kaa prayog us singular noun shabd se pahale kiyaa jaataa hai jis shabd kee pratham dhwanee swar ho. English bhaaShaa meiN swar akShar hai - A, E, I, O, U.
For example: An umbrella, an elephant, an apple, an orphan, an artist, etc.

Dhayaan dijiye 'An' kaa prayog pratham akShar kee swar dhwanee ke aadhaar par kiyaa jaataa hai, naa kee shabd ke pratham swar akShar hone par.
For example: "An hour" , "An honest man"", "A young man"", "A house", "An heir", "A useful book", "An M.L.A", "An F.I.R.", "An X-ray", "An LL.B", "A husband", "An honour", "An year", "A one-rupee note", "An IAS" aadee.
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Specific use of 'A/An'

Specific use of A/An A/An kaa prayog Examples
A/An' is used before Singular Countable Noun. A Noun which can be counted. Singular Countable Noun se pahale 'A/An' kaa prayog kiyaa jaataa hai. Countable kaa arth hai jisakee ginatee ho sake. An Artist, a doctor, a boy, a dog, an umbrella.
A/An' is used before singular noun. It is not used before plural noun. A/An' singular noun se pahale prayog kiyaa jaataa hai, plural noun se pahale nahee. A book' is correct, 'a books' is incorrect as word 'books' is plural.
A/An' is not used before proper noun, but when it is unknown for the speaker, 'A/An' is used. Proper noun se pahale 'A/An' kaa prayog nahee hotaa hai lekin jab vakta ke liye vah anjan hai to 'A/An' kaa prayog hotaa hai. This book is written by a Rajeev Ailawadi (Here Ailawadi is an unknown person for the speaker).
A/an' is used after words what & such in exclamatory sentences. Exclamatory vaakyo meiN What & Such ke baad singular countable noun se pahale A/An kaa prayog kiyaa jaataa hai. What a scene, What a lovely boy, Such a big hall.
A/An' is used before professions. Profession se pahale 'A/An' kaa prayog kiyaa jaataa hai. She is a teacher, He is an engineer, He is a manager, Ram is an MP.
A/An' is used when someone is introduced by features or personality of important/famous persons. Kisee vishishT vyakti kee upamaa se kisee anya kee pahachaan dee jaaye to A/An kaa prayog hotaa hai. He is a Dara Singh of our colony, She is a Hitler, She is a Lata Mangeshkar of our college.
A/An' is used before a verb which is used as a noun in a sentence. Vaakya meiN jab verb kaa prayog noun kee tarah kiyaa jaye, to usase pahalaa A/An kaa prayog hotaa hai. We go for a walk daily, We had a long discussion, She wants to have a bath.
A/An is used after words -many/rather/quite/such, if it come before singular noun. Many/rather/quite/such ke baad yadi singular noun aaye, to usase pahale A/An kaa prayog hotaa hai. Many a times, quite an easy question, such an intelligent boy, rather a lovely place.
If Adjective comes before singular noun, then A/An is used before Adjective. Yadi singular noun se pahale koi adjective aataa hai, to A/An ko Adjective se pahale lagaate hai. She is a beautiful girl, He is not a good person, He is an intelligent boy, She is an honest minister.
Before a singular noun which refers to a class of things. Kisee jaati /vishesh ko vyakt karane ke liye, A/An kaa prayog singular noun se pahale kiyaa jaataa hai. An orange is rich in vitamins. A dog is an animal. A parrot is a bird, I am a journalist, She is an Indian.
A/An is used for certain expressions of quantity and numbers. Kuchh maatra aur number se pahale, A/An kaa prayog hotaa hai. A lot of things, a few samples, a couple of days, a hundred rupee note, a million dollar question.

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Article - The

'The' is known as a definite article as it is used for a particular thing or person. 'The' article is same for all genders in singular and in plural.

'The' article nishchit vyakti, vastu yaa sthaan kee aur sanket karataa hai. 'The' article sabhee singular aur plural ke liye saamaan hai.

Use of 'The' Article

Before Pahale Examples
Things of Nature or Unique Praakratik yaa bejoD cheeje The Sun, the sky, the earth but 'The' is not used before Hell, Heaven, God and Parliament.
Directions (if preposition comes before it) Dishaanye (jab inase pahale preposition diyaa huaa ho) The sun rises in the east.
East or West, home is the best.
The names of Rivers, oceans, seas, hills, lakes, dams, trains, ships, deserts Nadiyon, samundro, mahaasaagroN, pahaaDoN, jheeloN, neharoN, dams, jahaajoN, marusthaloN, aadi ke naam se pahale. The Ganga, the Shatabdi Express, the Himalayas, the Bhakhra dam, the Sahara desert, the Arabian sea, the Indian ocean etc.
The names of newspapers, magazine, religious books. Dhaarmik granth, akhbaar, patrikaa, aadi ke naam se pahale. The Gita, the Indian Express, the India Today.
The names of historical buildings, public places, religious places. Etihaasik bhawano, saarvajanik sthalo, dhaarmik sthaano ke naam se pahale. The Taj Mahal, The Golden Temple, The zoo.
The singular noun which represents the whole of its class Un singular noun se pahale jo poori jaati kaa bodh karaataa hai. The dog is a faithful animal.
The Proper noun which is used as a Common noun. Un Proper noun se pahale jo Common noun ke roop meiN prayog kiye gaye ho. He is the Rustam of Japan.
The name of organisation of workshop, factory, party, bank. WorkShop, factory, party, bank, aadi ke sangthan ke naam se pahale The Congress, The state bank of India.
Historical events Etihaasik ghaTanaao se pahale The battle of Panipat.
Big posts BaDe baDe pado ke liye The President, The Prime Minister, The Director
Words -evening, morning, afternoon (if words - last, next or every, is not coming before it) Evening/morning/afternoon se pahale (yadi inase pahale last, next yaa every shabd naa diyaa huaa ho) In the evening, in the morning, last evening, every morning.
Superlative Degree Superlative degree se pahale The greatest, the most, the fastest
Comparative Degree (if 'than' is not used before it) Comparative Degree se pahale (yadi usake aage 'than' nahee ho). She is the wiser of the two. She is wiser than Suman. The older he grew, the worse he became.
The Common noun which has already been mentioned or which is already known. Un common noun se pahale jinakaa ullekh pahale hee ho gayaa ho yaa un shabdoN se pahale jinase purva parichayA ho. There was a fox. The fox was hungry. I know the man who came here last night.
Proper noun for making it plural. Proper noun ko bahuvachan banaane ke liye. The Guptas, The Greens, the Sharmas
The Adjectives which are used as noun. Un Adjective se pahale jo noun ke roop meiN prayukt hote hai. The rich, the brave, the poor.
The dates Tithi/tareekh se pahale Today is the 3rd of December.
After words 'All & Both' and before words 'Whole & Same') All aur Both' ke baad tathaa 'Whole aur Same' se pahale All the boys, Both the girls, The whole class, The same shirt.
The thing which is specific or particular Jab koi khaas cheej ho That is the house. The girl standing in the first row.
Community, castes Sampradaayo aur jaatiyo se pahale The English (angrej log), The Hindus (Hindu log), The French
Normally 'The' is not used before the name of any country or person. But such countries which are united, 'The' is used before their name. Adhikatar kisee naam ke aage (chaahe kisee aadamee kaa ho yaa Desh kaa ) 'The' kaa prayog nahee hotaa hai. Lekin aise Desh jo sangthan se bane hai unake aage 'The' kaa prayog hotaa hai. The UK, The USA, The UAE.

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No Article

Zero Article No Article Examples
The' is not used before School, college, church, prison when the purpose of going there is same for which it was meant for. School, college, bed, church, Prison se pahale 'The' kaa prayog us sthiti meiN nahee hotaa jab vahaaN jaane kaa uddeshya vahee ho jis hetu usakaa nirmaaN kiyaa gayaa hai. I go to college daily (purpose-study), I go to bed (purpose-sleep), She goes to temple (purpose-prayer)
Article is not used before a noun which comes after the words - appoint, made, nominate, elect, declare Words - Appoint, made, nominate, elect, declare ke baad aane waale noun se pahale 'Article' kaa prayog nahee hotaa. He is elected MP, He made him finance in charge, Viraat will be declared captain of Indian team.
Article' is not used before words - lunch, dinner, breakfast. Words - Lunch, dinner, breakfast se pahale saamaanyatah 'Article' nahee lagaayaa jaataa. I invited him to dinner, I had my breakfast, I shall have lunch at 2 pm.
Article' is not used before the name of Disease, Language & Colours. Bimaaree, Bhaashaa, Rang ke nam se pahale 'Article' kaa prayog nahee hotaa. She died of dengue fever, I can speak English, She likes pink colour. If colour is used as an adjective, then Article is used e.g. She always keeps a red pen, She has a green saree.
Article is not used before plural noun when it refers to a class. Plural noun se pahale Article kaa prayog tab nahee hotaa jab vah kisee varg ko vyakt karataa hai. Doctors are normally humble. Teachers are strict towards students. Working women are normally over-stressed.
The' is not used before shops, banks, hotels which are affiliated with the name of persons who started them. Kai shops, banks, hotels, churches un vyaktiyo ke naam se juDe hote hai jinhone use shuru kiyaa hai - inase pahale 'The' kaa prayog nahee hotaa. Raymonds (shop), Mcdonalds, Subway, Lloyds bank, St Paul's Cathedral.
The' is not used with the name of company Companiyo ke naam ke saath bhee 'The' kaa prayog nahee hotaa. Indian Oil Corporation Ltd, Maruti, Colgate, Sony, Samsung.
The' is not used when possessive pronouns -My, His, Her comes before superlative degree Superlative degree se poorv yadi My, His, Her jaise possessive pronoun kaa prayog ho to 'The' kaa prayog nahee hotaa. She is my best friend, She is her best classmate, I am her dearest friend.
Many Buildings and Institutions names are made of two words out of which one word is of a person or place, 'The' is not used before them. Kai Buildings aur Institutions ke naam do shabdoN se milkar bane hote hai jiname se ek shabd kisee vyakti yaa sthaan kaa hotaa hai, usase pahale 'The' kaa prayog nahee hotaa. Victoria station, Indira Gandhi Airport, Chhatrapati Shiva jee Stadium.

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More examples

Akbar ek mahaan raajaa thaa. Akbar was a great king.
Baanye raho. Keep to the left.
BhaaD meiN jaao. Go to hell.
Bharat kaa Billgate kaun banane jaa rahaa hai? Who is going to be the Billgate of India?
Bus kee ek ghanTe kee sewaa hai. There is an hourly bus service.
Kashmir Bharat kaa Switzerland hai. Kashmir is the Switzerland of India.
Kyaa baat hai? What is the matter?
Kyaa daakiyaa meraa patra le aaya? Has the postman brought my letter?
MaiN snaan karane jaa rahaa hoon. I am going to take a bath.
MaiN bister par baiThaa. I sat on the bed.
MaiN bister par leTaa. I lay on the bed.
MaiN Economic main bahut achchhaa hoon. I am very good in Economics.
MaiN English seekh rahaa hoon. I am learning English.
Maine tumhe Charch ke najdeek paayaa. I found you near the church
Maine tumhe St. Paul Church ke najdeek paayaa. I found you near St. Paul Church.
Matlab kee baat karo. Come to the point.
Surya pashchim meiN ast hotaa hai. The Sun sets in the west.
Vah hoshiaar vidhyaarthee nahee hai. She is not a bright student.
Yah sabase achchhee web sito meiN se ek hai. This is one of the best web sites.


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