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Englishkitab >> Learning Course >> ELC-8th Day

ELC-8th Day - आठवां दिन

8th Day - We shall learn about Present Perfect Continuous Tense. Sentences of actions which has started in past, still continuing and yet not completed come under Present Perfect Continuous Tense.

Present Perfect Continuous Tense

It is used to express an action which has started in past, still continuing and not completed so far. It is used to express a continued or ongoing action that started in past and is continued till now. In this tense, start time of action will always be given like - for a few days, for ten months, for 2 years, since Wednesday, since 2011, since September etc.

If start time of action is not given in the sentence, then it does not come under Present Perfect Continuous Tense. 'Start time of action' is the main factor which differentiates between Present Continuous Tense and Present Perfect Continuous Tense. e.g.

It is drizzling outsite - Present Continuous Tense.
It has been drizzling outside since morning. - Present Perfect Continuous Tense.
In the above example, only start time of action 'since morning' is the factor which is changing the tense of the sentence.



ऐसे कार्य या एक्शन जो भूतकाल में शुरु हो, लगातार जारी है और अभी तक पूर्ण नही हुए हैं, प्रेज़न्ट पर्फेक्ट कन्टीन्युअस टेन्स के अंतर्गत आते हैं । हिन्दी में इसकी पहचान है - वाक्य के अंत में 'रहा है', 'रही है', 'रहे हैं' का प्रयोग होता है । परंतु ऐसे वाक्यों में कार्य शुरु होन के समय का प्रयोग जरुरी है । वह वाक्य जहां कार्य शुरु होने का विगत समय दिया हुआ हो और एक्शन लगातार चल रहा हो और वाक्य के अंत में 'रहा है', 'रही है', 'रहे हैं' का प्रयोग हो, तो वह प्रेज़न्ट पर्फेक्ट कन्टीन्युअस टेन्स है ।

अगर विगत समय नही दिया हुआ है तो वह वाक्य तो वह प्रेज़न्ट कन्टीन्युअस टेन्स है । वाक्य में कार्य शुरु होने के समय का प्रयोग ही प्रेज़न्ट कन्टीन्युअस प्रेज़न्ट पर्फेक्ट कन्टीन्युअस टेन्स में फर्क (डिफरेंस) बताता है ।

जैसे - बाहर बूंदा बांदी हो रही है - प्रेज़न्ट कन्टीन्युअस टेन्स
बाहर बूंदा बांदी सुबह से हो रही है -प्रेज़न्ट पर्फेक्ट कन्टीन्युअस टेन्स
(इस उदाहरण में कार्य शुरु होने का समय "सुबह से" मुख्य है जो टेन्स को बदल रहा है ।)

Present Perfect Continuous Tense - Positive

Present Perfect Continuous Tense - Positive
Type of Sentence Rule
Positive Subject + Has/Have + been + Verb (Ist form) + Ing + Object + For/Since + Time + Remaining + (.)

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In Present Perfect Continuous Tense, helping verb 'has been / have been' is used and 'Ing' is added with first form of Verb. For time 'Since or For' is used. Word “Since’ is used when time mentioned in the sentence is certain and ‘For’ is used when time mentioned in the sentence is not certain.

प्रेज़न्ट पर्फेक्ट कन्टीन्युअस टेन्स में सहायक क्रिया 'has been / have been' का प्रयोग होता है और वर्ब की फर्स्ट फ़ॉर्म के साथ 'Ing' जोड़ा जाता है । वाक्य में दिए टाइम के लिए 'Since या For' का प्रयोग होता है । अगर टाइम निश्चित है तो 'Since' का प्रयोग करते हैं और अगर टाइम अनिश्चित है तो 'For' का प्रयोग करते हैं ।

Use of 'For' and 'Since'
"For" is applied before uncertain time:- "Since" is applied before certain time:-
Five hours, two hours, an hour 3 O'clock, 10 O'clock, 5 PM, 4 AM.
few days, four days, seven days Monday, Saturday, Sunday
two months, eight months March, June, December
One year, ten years 2011, 2012, 2013
for a long time Since long.
Yesterday, tomorrow, day after tomorrow
Morning, Evening, Night, Noon, Afternoon.
Birth, beginning, then, when

Present Perfect Continuous Tense - Positive मैं सुबह तीन बजे से किताब पढ़ रहा हूँ ।
Person Subject Has/Have Been + Verb(Ist Form) + Ing + Object Since / For Time + Remaining
Ist person I have been studying book since 3 o'clock.
Ist Person -Plural We have been studying book since 3 o'clock.
2nd Person You have been studying book since 3 o'clock.
3rd Person -Singular He/She/It/Ram has been studying book since 3 o'clock.
3rd Person -Plural They/boys have been studying book since 3 o'clock.

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Present Perfect Continuous Tense - Negative

Present Perfect Continuous Tense - Negative
Type of Sentence Rule
Negative Subject + Has/Have + Not + been + Verb (Ist form) + Ing + Object + For/Since + Time + Remaining + (.)

In Present Perfect Continuous Negative sentence, 'Not' is added between 'Has/Have' and 'Been'.

प्रेज़न्ट पर्फेक्ट कन्टीन्युअस नकारात्मक वाक्य में 'Not' को 'Has/Have' ओर 'Been' के बीच में लगाते हैं ।

Present Perfect Continuous Tense - Negative मैं दो घंटे से नदी में नही तैर रहा हूँ ।
Person Subject Has/Have + Not Been + Verb(Ist Form) + Ing + Object Since / For Time + Remaining
Ist person I have not been swimming in the river for two hours.
Ist Person -Plural We have not been swimming in the river for two hours.
2nd Person You have not been swimming in the river for two hours.
3rd Person -Singular He/She/It/Ram has not been swimming in the river for two hours.
3rd Person -Plural They/boys have not been swimming in the river for two hours.



Examples

Sentence वाक्य
Vartika has been playing since morning. वर्तिका सुबह से खेल रही है ।
Uncle has been living in Delhi since the birth of his son. अंकल अपने बेटे के जन्म से दिल्ली में रह रहे हैं ।
It has been raining since night. रात से वर्षा हो रही है ।
He has been preparing for the examination for last two years. वह पिछले दो सालों से परीक्षा की तैयारी कर रहा है ।
He has been suffering from fever since Sunday. उसे रविवार से बुखार आ रहा है ।
Seema has been waiting for her friend in garden for the last two hours. सीमा पार्क में अपने दोस्त को पिछले दो घंटे से इंतजार कर रही है ।

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