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ELC-31st Day - इकतीसवाँ दिन

31st Day - After Tense and Active Passive, Direct & Indirect is the most important part of English Language. We are going to start this topic today.
We can report any Speech to another person either in the same words (known as Direct Speech or Direct Narration) OR report the speech in our words without changing the meaning (known as Indirect Speech or Indirect Narration).

Direct-Indirect Speech

Statement of a speaker or reporter is known as "Speech or Narration". We can report any Speech to another person in two ways:

(i) Report speaker's Speech to another person in the same words. It is known as Direct Speech or Direct Narration. In Direct Narration, the Speech is kept in Inverted Commas "I ...".

(ii) Report speaker's Speech to another person in our own words without changing the meaning of the Speech. It is known as Indirect Speech or Indirect Narration.

किसी वक्ता की कही बात को कथन (Speech या Narration) कहते है । किसी भी कथन को हम दूसरे व्यक्ति को दो तरीके से बता सकते है: 

(i) वक्ता के कथन को ज्यों का त्यों बताना । इसे Direct Speech या Direct Narration कहा जाता है । Direct Speech को Inverted Commas "मैं..." में बंद किया जाता है । 

(ii) वक्ता के कथन के अर्थ या आशय को बदले बिना अपने शब्दों में बताना । इसे Indirect Speech या Indirect Narration कहा जाता है ।
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Terminology of Direct-Indirect Speech

To understand the terminology of Direct-Indirect Speech, let us look at one example.

प्रत्यक्ष-अप्रत्यक्ष कथन की शब्दावली को समझने के लिये आइए एक उदाहरण को देखें । 

Example

Direct Speech Avyan said to Vartika, "I have broken my toys."
Indirect Speech Avyan told Vartika that he had broken his toys.
Reporter वक्ता को रिपोर्टर कहा जाता है । यहां अव्यन रिपोर्टर है । Speaker is known as Reporter. Here Avyan is Reporter.
Reporting Verb वक्ता द्वारा प्रयुक्त वर्ब को रिपोर्टिंग वर्ब कहते है । यहां 'said' रिपोर्टिंग वर्ब है । Verb used by Reporter is Reporting Verb. Here 'said' is Reporting Verb.
Reported Speech वक्ता द्वारा कहा गया कथन जो Inverted Commas "..." के भीतर रहता है उसे रिपोर्टेड़ स्पीच कहते है । यहां "I have broken my toys ।" रिपोर्टेड़ स्पीच है । यह हमेशा कैपिटल लेटर से शुरू होता है । Speaker's Speech which remains between Inverted Commas "..." is known as Reported Speech. Here "I have broken my toys." is Reported Speech. It is always started with Capital Letter.
Verb of Reported Speech रिपोर्टेड़ Speech में प्रयुक्त हुय वर्ब को रिपोर्टेड़ स्पीच का वर्ब कहते है । उदहारण में यह 'broken' है । Verb used in Reported Speech is known as Verb of Reported Speech. In the example it is 'broken'.

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Direct-Indirect Speech - Simple Sentences

From the above example, broadly it comes to knowledge that for changing Direct Speech to Indirect Speech, we are to (i) Use a word to join both the parts like 'that' is used here; (ii) Remove Inverted Commas; (iii) Change the Pronoun; and (iv) Change the tense of Reported Speech.

ऊपर दिये हुय उदाहरण से मोटे तौर पर यह समझ में आता है की Direct speech को Indirect speech बनाने के लिये (i) Direct speech के दोनों भागो को जोड़ने के लिये किसी शब्द का प्रयोग होता है जैसे यहां 'that' का प्रयोग होता है; (ii) Inverted Commas को हटा दिया जाता है; (iii) सर्वनाम बदला जाता है; और (iv) Reported speech के काल में परिवर्तन होता है ।

Rule No. 1

First of all see the Reporting Verb. If it is 'say, says, will say or said', in Indirect Speech also it will remain same 'say, says, will say or said'. If 'to' is added with the Reporting Verb then in Indirect Speech it will be changed as per the rule below:

(i) Say to - Tell (ii) Says to - Tells (iii) Will say to - Will tell (iv) Said to - Told

When 'to' is added with the Reporting Verb, Object will always be there and in Indirect Speech after 'Tell or Told', Object must come.

सबसे पहले Reporting Verb को देखें । यदि यह 'Say, Says, Will Say or said' है तो Indirect Speech में भी अपरिवर्तित 'Say, Says, Will Say or said' रहेंगे । यदि Reporting Verb के साथ 'to' लगा हो तो Indirect Speech में यह इस प्रकार परिवर्तित होंगे:

(i) Say to - Tell (ii) Says to - Tells (iii) Will say to - Will tell (iv) Said to - Told

जब Reporting Verb के साथ 'to' लगता है तो वहां Object अवश्य होगा और Indirect Speech में 'tell या Told' के बाद Object अवश्य आयेगा ।
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Rule No. 2

See the Tense of Reported Verb. If Tense of Reported Verb is Past Tense then in Indirect Speech Tense of Reported Speech is changed to Past Tense as per Rule given below:

Reported Verb के Tense को देखें । यदि Reported Verb का Tense Past Tense हो तो Reported Speech के सारे Tense इस नियम से बदलते है:

Reported Speech Tense in Direct Speech Reported Speech Tense in Indirect Speech
Simple Present Simple Past
Present Indefinite Past Indefinite
Present Continuous Past Continuous
Present Perfect Past Perfect
Present Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Continuous
Past Indefinite Past Perfect
Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous
Past Perfect No change of Tense
Past Perfect Continuous No change of Tense
Will/Shall in Future Tense Would/Should (Should with Pronoun 'I' & 'We' only)
Can Could
May Might
Could/Should/Would/Might No Change

Rule No. 3

When Reporting Verb is of Past Tense, then the following words of Reported Speech are changed as per below:

जब Reporting Verb, भूत काल (Past Tense) का हो तब निम्नलिखित Reported Speech के शब्दों को निम्नप्रकार से बदला जाता है:

Direct Speech Indirect Speech
Ago Before
Hence Thence
Here There
Hither Thither
Last night The previous night
Last week The previous week
Next week The following week
Now Then
The day before yesterday The day before the previous day
The last fortnight The previous fortnight.
These Those
This That
Thus So
Today That day
Tomorrow The next day
Tonight That night
Yesterday The previous day

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Rule No. 4

If Tense of Reporting Verb is either Present Tense or Future Tense, we do not make change in the Tense of Reported Speech.
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जब Reporting Verb का Tense Present Tense या Future Tense हो तो Reported Speech के Tense में कोई परिवर्तन नही करते हैं । 

Rule No. 5

If any Universal Truth, Proverb, Habitual Act, Historical Fact, Unchanged Facts, or Imaginary Condition comes in Reported Speech, then Tense of Reported Speech does not change even if Reported Verb is of Past Tense.

यदि कोई सर्वकालिक सत्य, कहावत, आदतन क्रिया, एतिहासिक तथ्य, अपरिवर्तित तथ्य या काल्पनिक स्थिति Reported Speech में आये तब Reported Speech का Tense नही बदलता है चाहे Reported Verb भूत काल का हो ।

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