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ELC-7th Day - सातवां दिन

7th Day - We shall learn about Present Perfect Tense. Sentences of actions which has happened or completed at the time of speaking come under Present Perfect Tense.

Present Perfect Tense

It is used to express an action which has just been happened or completed at the moment of speaking. Present + Perfect means completion of action in present, in other words action has just happened.

हिन्दी में प्रेज़न्ट पर्फेक्ट टेन्स की पहचान - वाक्य के अंत में आया है, गया है, गई है, लिया है, चुका है, चुकी है, चुके हैं आदि का प्रयोग होता है । एक्शन जो अभी हाल ही में घटा हो या पूरा हुआ हो, प्रेज़न्ट पर्फेक्ट टेन्स के अंतर्गत आता है । प्रेज़न्ट + पर्फेक्ट (वर्तमान + पूर्ण) अर्थात क्रिया का वर्तमान में पूर्ण होना, दूसरे शब्दों में कार्य अभी हाल ही में सम्पूर्ण हुआ है ।

Present Perfect Tense - Positive

Present Perfect Tense - Positive
Type of Sentence Rule
Positive Subject + Has/Have + Verb (3rd form) + Object + (.)


In Present Perfect Tense, 'has/have' and 3rd form of Verb is used. 'Has' is used only when subject is third person-singular. In all other cases, 'Have' is used in Present Perfect Tense.

प्रेज़न्ट पर्फेक्ट टेन्स में 'has/have' और वर्ब की तीसरी फ़ॉर्म का प्रयोग होता है । 'Has' का प्रयोग तभी होता है जब सब्जेक्ट थर्ड पर्सन सिंगुलर हो. बाकि सब के साथ 'have' का प्रयोग होता है ।

Present Perfect Tense - Positive मैने नई कार खरीद ली है ।
Person Subject Has/Have + Verb (3rd Form) Object
Ist person I have bought a new car.
Ist Person -Plural We have bought a new car.
2nd Person You have bought a new car.
3rd Person -Singular He/She/It/Ram/Seema has bought a new car.
3rd Person -Plural They/boys have bought a new car.

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Read the following sentences:

वाक्य Sentence
ट्रेन आ चुकी है । The train has arrived.
वर्तिका सो चुकी है । Vartika has slept.
अव्यन नहा चुका है । Avyan has taken bath.
तुम आए हो/आ चुके हो । You have come.
मैने यह किताब पढ़ी है/मैं यह किताब पढ़ चुका हूँ । I have read this book.
टीचर ने पेपर जांच लिए हैं । The teacher has checked the papers.
उसने नाश्ता कर लिया है । He has taken breakfast.
कीमते फिर बढ़ गई है । Prices have risen again.
तुम अब पिता बन गए हो । You have become a father now.
माहिका अभी गई है । Mahika has just gone.

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Present Perfect Tense - Negative

Present Perfect Tense - Negative
Type of Sentence Rule
Negative Subject + Has/Have + Not + Verb (3rd form) + Object + (.)

In Negative sentence, 'Not' is added after helping verb-Has/Have and before '3rd form of Verb'.

इसके नेगेटिव वाक्य में 'Not' को हेल्पिंग वर्ब - Has/Have के बाद और वर्ब की तीसरी फ़ॉर्म से पहले लगाते हैं ।

Present Perfect Tense - Negative उसने मेरा काम खत्म नही किया है ।
Person Subject Has/Have + Not + Verb(3rd Form) Subject
Ist person I have not finished my work.
Ist Person -Plural We have not finished my work.
2nd Person You have not finished my work.
3rd Person -Singular He/She/It/Ram/Seema has not finished my work.
3rd Person -Plural They/boys have not finished my work.

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