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ELC-43rd Day - तैंतालीसवां दिन

43rd Day - Today we shall learn about Participles.
Participle is also a form of Non-Finite Verb and a Verbal. It is commonly used and often confused with Gerund hence its knowledge is necessary.

The Participle

A Participle is also one of the three types of Non-Finite Verbs. Participle is also a Verbal. (Words that are formed from verbs but don't act as verbs are called Verbal).

Words which have the features of both a Verb and an Adjective are called Participles.(e.g. playing, dancing, singing). A Participle is that form of the Verb which acts as an Adjective (An Adjective made from a Verb). Participle is also known as Verbal Adjective. The function of an adjective is to describe a noun or a pronoun. Therefore, a participle always describes a noun or a pronoun in the same sentence. In other words, A Participle is a form of a verb that is used in a sentence to modify a Noun or Noun phrase and plays a role of an Adjective.

Participle भी Non-Finite वर्ब के तीन प्रकारो में से एक है । Participle भी एक Verbal है । (शब्द जो verb से बना हो परंतु verb की तरह कार्य नही करे वह Verbal कहलाता है) ।

ऐसे शब्द जिनमें Verb और Adjective (विशेषण) दोनो के लक्षण होते हैं, Participle कहलाते हैं । (जैसे - playing, dancing, singing) । Participle क्रिया का वह रूप है जो Adjective की तरह कार्य करता है (क्रिया से बनाया गया Adjective) । Participle को Verbal Adjective से भी जाना जाता है । Adjective का कार्य संज्ञा या सर्वनाम का वर्णन करना है । इसलिये, Participle हमेशा उसी वाक्य के संज्ञा या सर्वनाम का वर्णन करता है ।  दूसरे शब्दों में, Participle क्रिया का वह रूप है जो वाक्य में Noun या Noun phrase की विशेषता बताता है और एक विशेषण का किरदार निभाता है
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Word having features of Verb + Adjective = Participle

Look at the examples:
1. It is an interesting story.
2. It is a boring movie.

(a) In the above sentences, words - interesting and boring are made from verbs interest and bore respectively.
(b) In the first sentence, word 'interesting' is defining the Noun 'Story' and in second sentence 'boring' is defining Noun 'movie'. Therefore both the words - interesting and boring are acting as Adjective.

(a) ऊपर के दोनो वाक्यों में, शब्द - interesting और boring क्रिया शब्द interest और bore से बने हुए हैं ।
(b) पहले वाक्य में शब्द 'interesting' संज्ञा 'Story' को वर्णित कर रहा है और दूसरे वाक्य में 'boring' संज्ञा 'movie' की व्याख्या कर रहा है । इसलिये दोनो शब्द - interesting और boring, Adjective (विशेषण) का कार्य कर रहे हैं ।

Kinds of Participle

Participles are of three types - (1) Present Participle; (2) Perfect Participle; and (3)Past Participle

Participle तीन प्रकार के होते हैं - (1) Present Participle; (2) Perfect Participle; और (3) Past Participle
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Present Participle

Form - Infinitive Verb + Ing e.g. Running, Working, Going
Participle is used when there is one Subject for all the parts of the sentence and two or more than two actions are performed or two or more than two verbs are used When both/all the actions happen simultaneously or an action starts immediately after another action, then Present Participle is used.

Participle का प्रयोग तब होता है जब एक वाक्य के सभी भागों का एक Subject होता है और दो या दो से ज्यादा कार्य संपन्न होते हैं या दो या दो से ज्यादा Verb प्रयुक्त होते हैं ।  जब दोनो/सभी कार्य एक साथ (simultaneously) संपन्न होते हैं या एक कार्य दूसरे कार्य के तुरंत बाद संपन्न होता है, तब Present Participle का प्रयोग होता है । 

Examples

अव्यन खेल रहा है । Avyan is playing.
यह एक मजेदार खबर है । It is an interesting news.
वह एक टेबल बना रहा है । He is making a table.
मैनेजर होने के नाते वह भी जापान गया । Being a manager, he also went to Japan.

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Perfect Participle

Form - Having + Past Participle e.g. Having done, Having worked, Having mailed

Participle is used when there is one Subject for all the parts of the sentence and two or more than two actions are performed or two or more than two verbs are used When one action is fully completed in the near past and then another action is started or stated to be completed, Perfect Participle is used.

Participle का प्रयोग तब होता है जब एक वाक्य के सभी भागों का एक सब्जेक्ट होता है और दो या दो से ज्यादा कार्य संपन्न होते है या दो या दो से ज्यादा वर्ब प्रयुक्त होते हैं ।  जब एक कार्य पूर्ण रुप से कुछ ही समय पहले पूरा हो जाता हैं और उसके बाद दूसरा कार्य शुरु होता है या पूरा होने को प्रयुक्त करता है तब परफेंट Participle का प्रयोग होता है ।

Examples

अपना अँग्रेज़ी का उच्चारण सुधार कर उसने अपनी प्रमोशन की संभावना बढ़ा ली है । Having improved his English pronunciation, he has increased the probability of his promotion.
मेल को ड़्राफ्ट करके उसने अपने बॉस को दिखाया । Having drafted the mail he showed it to his boss.
जुआ खेल कर उसने सब कुछ गंवा दिया । Having played a gamble he lost everything.
आराम कर उसने कठिन काम जारी रखा । Having rested, he continued hard work.

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Past Participle

Form - Infinitive + -d/-ed/-t/-en/-n e.g. Worked, broken, made, learnt, stolen

Past Participle indicates past or completed action or time. It is used to represent actions completed in past and not continuing in present.

Past Participle भूतकाल या किसी कार्य या समय के past में पूरा होने को व्यक्त करता है । यह भूतकाल में संपन्न हुए कार्य को व्यक्त करता है जो अब वर्तमान में नही चल रहा है ।

Examples

उसने एक अच्छा भाषण दिया है । He has delivered a good speech.
उसने मेरा पत्र नही पढ़ा था । She had not read my letter.
तुमने अपनी ट्रांसफर के लिये लिखित अर्जी दी है । You have given a written application for your transfer.
मैने इंग्लिश सीख ली है । I have learnt English.


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