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ELC-45th Day - पैंतालीसवां दिन

45th Day - Today we shall learn in detail about Pronoun.
Pronouns are the most important and commonly used words in English language. It takes place of nouns and helps to shorten the sentence by not repeating the full noun again and again. Understanding of Prooun is essential for learning good English.

Pronoun

A Pronoun is a word that takes the place of a Noun. In other words, Pronouns can be substituted for Nouns without changing the meaning of the sentence. Pronouns are usually short words and are used to obviate repetition of nouns or noun phrases. A Pronoun can perform all functions of a Noun and can be a subject, object or complement in a sentence.

सर्वनाम वह शब्द है जो संज्ञा का स्थान लेता है। दूसरे शब्दों में, संज्ञा को वाकय का अर्थ परिवर्तित हुए बिना सर्वनाम से बदला जा सकता है। अक्सर प्रोनाउन छोटे शब्द होते हैं और noun या noun phrase की बार बार पुनरावृति को दूर करते हैं। नाउन के सारे कार्य प्रोनाउन कर सकता है और वाक्य में सब्जेक्ट, ऑब्जेक्ट या complement बन सकता है।

Let us see an example - How Pronoun make sentences short and simple.

Sentences without Pronouns : Vartika has a multi-talented robot. Avyan asked Vartika to give multi-talented robot to Avyan. Vartika loves the multi-talented robot so Vartika did not give multi-talented robot to Avyan. Vartika did not even obey the advice of Vartika's mother. Today also, Vartika plays with the multi-talented robot daily.

Nouns repeated in the above example are : Vartika, multi-talented robot and Avyan. The use of Pronouns obviate repetition of nouns.

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Same sentences with Pronouns : Vartika has a multi-talented robot. Avyan asked her to give it to him. She loves it so she did not give it to him. She did not even obey the advice of her mother. Today also, she plays with it daily.

Often we do not use pronouns before small children because they may have difficulty in understanding which pronoun is used for which noun hence we repeat the complete noun in the sentence to make the child understand it properly.

उपर उदाहरण में हमने देखा की किस प्रकार प्रोनाउन का प्रयोग वाक्य को छोटा और सरल बनाता है। बहुधा हम छोटे बच्चों के सामने प्रोनाउन का प्रयोग नही करते हैं क्योंकि उन्हें शायद यह समझने में कठिनाइ हो की कौन सा प्रोनाउन किस नाउन के लिए प्रयुक्त हुआ है इसलिए हम बच्चे को अच्छी तरह समझाने के लिए वाक्य में पूरा नाउन बार-बार दोहराते हैं।

Kinds of Pronoun

There are eight kinds of Pronouns.

सर्वनाम आठ प्रकार के होते है।

1. Personal Pronoun
2. Possessive Pronoun
3. Reflexive Pronoun
4. Demonstrative Pronoun
5. Relative pronoun
6. Interrogative Pronoun
7. Indefinite Pronoun
8. Distributive Pronoun
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1. Personal Pronoun

Personal pronouns represent people or things. Personal Pronouns are of two types :

पर्सनल प्रोनाउन व्यक्तियों और वस्तुओं का प्रतिनिधित्व करते हैं। पर्सनल प्रोनाउन दो प्रकार के होते हैं:

1. Subjective Personal Pronouns: Pronouns that represent Subject of the Verb are Subjective Personal Pronouns.
2. Objective Personal Pronouns: Pronouns that represent Object of the sentence are Objective Personal Pronouns.

पर्सनल प्रोनाउन जो सब्जेक्ट का प्रतिनिधित्व करे सब्जेक्टिव पर्सनल प्रोनाउन है और जो ऑब्जेक्ट का प्रतिनिधित्व करे वह ऑब्जेक्टिव पर्सनल प्रोनाउन है।

Look at the following examples for better understanding:

Subjective Pronoun Objective Pronoun
I I am reading a book. Me Had you given the paper to me?
You You are my best friend. You She may call you.
She She is my sister. Her Don't break with her.
He He has done his job. Him Give this book to him.
It It may be kept in your drawer. It My wife has painted it.
We We have won the match. Us They will inform us before time.
They They are marching towards the Parliament. Them She made a complaint against them.

Selection of Personal Pronoun
For choosing correct Personal Pronoun, we are to determine the following things:

पर्सनल प्रोनाउन चुनने के लिए, हमें निम्न बातों को तय करना होता है:

Number - Two Numbers : Determine whether the noun to whom Personal Pronoun represents is singular or plural. If Personal Pronoun is representing singular person or thing, Personal Pronoun will be singular otherwise it will be plural.

देखो की जिस नाउन का प्रोनाउन प्रतिनिधित्व करता है वह सिंगुलर है या प्लुरल है। अगर पर्सनल प्रोनाउन एक व्यक्ति या वस्तु का प्रतिनिधित्व करता है, पर्सनल प्रोनाउन सिंगुलर होगा अन्यथा यह प्लुरल होगा।

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Person - Three Persons : Determine whether the noun to whom Personal Pronoun represents is of Ist Person, 2nd Person or 3rd Person. Accordingly Personal Pronoun of that person will be selected.

देखो की जिस नाउन का प्रोनाउन प्रतिनिधित्व करता है वह Ist Person, 2nd Person या 3rd Person का है। उसी के अनुसार प्रोनाउन का person चयनित होगा।

Gender - Three Genders : Determine whether the noun to whom Personal Pronoun represents is male, female or neuter. Accordingly Personal Pronoun of that gender will be selected.(male - he, his, him; female - she, her; neuter - it, its)

देखो की जिस नाउन का प्रोनाउन प्रतिनिधित्व करता है वह स्त्रीलिंग, पूर्लिंग या नपुसकलिंग का है। उसी के अनुसार प्रोनाउन के लिंग का निर्धारण होगा (पूर्लिंग - he, his, him; स्त्रीलिंग -she, her; नपुस्कलिंग - it, its) ।

Case - Three Cases : Determine the case of Pronoun. In English grammar, a noun's or a pronoun's case shows its relationship in some way to other words in a sentence. The Main cases are - (1) Subjective Case or Nominative Case - Subjective Pronoun acts as the subject of a sentence; (2) Objective Case - Objective Pronoun acts as the object of a sentence; and (3) Possessive Case - Possessive Pronoun shows ownership.

प्रोनाउन के केस को देखो। इंग्लीश ग्रैमर में, नाउन का या प्रोनाउन का केस इसका संबंध किसी प्रकार दूसरे शब्दों से दर्शाता है। मुख्य केस हैं - (1) सब्जेक्टिव केस ओर नॉमिनेटिवे केस - सब्जेक्टिव प्रोनाउन वाक्य में कर्ता का रोल अदा करता है; (2) ऑब्जेक्टिव केस - ऑब्जेक्टिव प्रोनाउन वाक्य में ऑब्जेक्ट का कार्य करता है; और (3) पोज़ेसिव केस - पोज़ेसिव प्रोनाउन स्वामित्व दर्शाता है।
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Look at the Table:

Singular Pronoun एकवचन सर्वनाम
Person Subjective Objective Possessive सब्जेक्टिव ऑब्जेक्टिव पोज़ेसिव
First I me my/mine मैं मुझे मेरा
Second you you your तुम तुम्हारा तुम्हारा
Third male he him his वह उसे उसका
Third female she her her वह उसे उसका
Third neutral it it its यह वह इसका
Plural Pronoun बहुवचन सर्वनाम
First we us our हम हम/ हमे हमारा
Second you you your तुम तुम्हारा तुम्हारा
Third male they them their वे उनका उनके
Third female they them their वे उनका उनके
Third neutral they them their वे उनका उनके



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