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ELC-46th Day

Grammar Part: Topic - Direct-Indirect Speech-1
General Part: Forms of Verbs, Antonyms, One Word Substitutes, General Vocabulary and Short Sentences

Direct-Indirect Speech

कहानी सुनाने की क्रिया को Narration कहते हैं। अंग्रेजी में, Direct-Indirect Narration का विषय एक महत्वपूर्ण विषय है और इसे Direct-Indirect Speech के रूप में भी जाना जाता है। वक्ता के बयान को Speech of Narration के रूप में जाना जाता है। स्पीकर के कथन को किसी अन्य व्यक्ति को कहने / रिपोर्ट करने के दो तरीके हैं:

The act of telling a story is called Narration In English, the subject of Direct-Indirect Narration is an important subject and is also known as Direct-Indirect Speech. The statement of the speaker is known as the Speech of Narration. There are two ways of saying / reporting the speaker's statement to someone else:

(i) स्पीकर के कथन को ज्यों का त्यों बताना । Direct Speech को Inverted Commas "..." में रखा जाता है। जैसे -
अव्यन ने वर्तिका से कहा, "मैंने अपने खिलौने तोड़ दिए हैं।"
इसे Direct Speech या Direct Narration कहते हैं।
(i) Reporting the speaker's statement as it is. Direct Speech is placed in Inverted Commas "...". e.g.
Avyan said to Vartika, "I have broken my toys."
This is called Direct Speech or Direct Narration.
(ii) स्पीकर के कथन के अर्थ या आशय को बदले बिना अपने स्वयं के शब्दों में बताना । जैसे -
अव्यन ने वर्तिका को बताया कि उसने अपने खिलौने तोड़ दिए हैं।
इसे Indirect Speech या Indirect Narration कहते हैं।
(ii) Reporting in your own words without changing the meaning or intent of the speaker's statement. e.g.
Avyan told Vartika that he had broken his toys.
This is called Indirect Speech or Indirect Narration.

Terminology of Direct-Indirect Speech

To understand the terminology of Direct-Indirect Speech, let us look at the following example:

Example: Direct Speech Avyan said to Vartika, "I have broken my toys."
The Terminology In the example विवरण Description
Reporter is: Avyan स्पीकर को रिपोर्टर के रूप में जाना जाता है। Speaker is known as Reporter.
Reporting Verb is: said रिपोर्टर द्वारा उपयोग की जाने वाली क्रिया को रिपोर्टिंग वर्ब के रूप में जाना जाता है। The verb used by Reporter is known as Reporting Verb.
Reported Speech is: "I have broken my toys." स्पीकर का कथन जो Inverted Commas "..." के बीच रहता है उसे रिपोर्टेड स्पीच के रूप में जाना जाता है। यह हमेशा कैपिटल लेटर से शुरू होता है। Speaker's Speech which remains between Inverted Commas "..." is known as Reported Speech. It always starts with Capital Letter.
Verb of Reported Speech is: broken Reported Speech में प्रयुक्त क्रिया को Verb of Reported Speech के नाम से जाना जाता है। The verb used in Reported Speech is known as Verb of Reported Speech.

Direct Indirect Rules
We will learn making Indirect Speech of the following topics separately to gain a better understanding.
  • Direct Indirect - Simple Sentences
  • Direct Indirect - Interrogative Sentences
  • Direct Indirect - Imperative Sentences
  • Direct Indirect - Sentences with 'Let'
  • Direct Indirect - Optative Sentences
  • Direct Indirect - Exclamatory Sentences
  • Direct Indirect - Miscellaneous Sentences

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