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Englishkitab >> Essential Grammar >> Direct-Indirect-Speech >> Direct-Indirect-Simple
Direct Indirect Speech
  1. Direct Indirect - Simple
  2. Direct Indirect - Interrogative Simple
  3. Direct Indirect - W-Family Interrogative
  4. Direct Indirect - Imperative
  5. Direct Indirect - Let
  6. Direct Indirect - Optative
  7. Direct Indirect - Exclamatory
  8. Direct Indirect - Miscellaneous

Direct-Indirect Speech - Simple Sentences


Direct Speech Avyan said to Vartika, "I have broken my toys."
Indirect Speech Avyan told Vartika that he had broken his toys.

From the above example, broadly it comes to knowledge that for changing Direct Speech to Indirect Speech, we are to (i) Use a word to join both the parts like 'that' is used here; (ii) Remove Inverted Commas; (iii) Change the Pronoun; and (iv) Change the tense of Reported Speech.

ऊपर दिये हुय उदाहरण से मोटे तौर पर यह समझ में आता है की Direct speech को Indirect speech बनाने के लिये (i) Direct speech के दोनों भागो को जोड़ने के लिये किसी शब्द का प्रयोग होता है जैसे यहां 'that' का प्रयोग होता है; (ii) Inverted Commas को हटा दिया जाता है; (iii) सर्वनाम बदला जाता है; और (iv) Reported speech के काल में परिवर्तन होता है ।

Rule No. 1

First of all see the Reporting Verb. If it is 'say, says, will say or said', in Indirect Speech also it will remain same 'say, says, will say or said'. If 'to' is added with the Reporting Verb then in Indirect Speech it will be changed as per the rule below:

(i) Say to - Tell (ii) Says to - Tells (iii) Will say to - Will tell (iv) Said to - Told

When 'to' is added with the Reporting Verb, Object will always be there and in Indirect Speech after 'Tell or Told', Object must come.

सबसे पहले Reporting Verb को देखें । यदि यह 'Say, Says, Will Say or said' है तो Indirect Speech में भी अपरिवर्तित 'Say, Says, Will Say or said' रहेंगे । यदि Reporting Verb के साथ 'to' लगा हो तो Indirect Speech में यह इस प्रकार परिवर्तित होंगे:

(i) Say to - Tell (ii) Says to - Tells (iii) Will say to - Will tell (iv) Said to - Told

जब Reporting Verb के साथ 'to' लगता है तो वहां Object अवश्य होगा और Indirect Speech में 'tell या Told' के बाद Object अवश्य आयेगा ।

Rule No. 2

See the Tense of Reported Verb. If Tense of Reported Verb is Past Tense then in Indirect Speech Tense of Reported Speech is changed to Past Tense as per Rule given below:

Reported Verb के Tense को देखें । यदि Reported Verb का Tense Past Tense हो तो Reported Speech के सारे Tense इस नियम से बदलते है:

Reported Speech Tense in Direct Speech Reported Speech Tense in Indirect Speech
Simple Present Simple Past
Present Indefinite Past Indefinite
Present Continuous Past Continuous
Present Perfect Past Perfect
Present Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Continuous
Past Indefinite Past Perfect
Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous
Past Perfect No change of Tense
Past Perfect Continuous No change of Tense
Will/Shall in Future Tense Would/Should (Should with Pronoun 'I' & 'We' only)
Can Could
May Might
Could/Should/Would/Might No Change

Rule No. 3

When Reporting Verb is of Past Tense, then the following words of Reported Speech are changed as per below:

जब Reporting Verb, भूत काल (Past Tense) का हो तब निम्नलिखित Reported Speech के शब्दों को निम्नप्रकार से बदला जाता है:

Direct Speech Indirect Speech
Ago Before
Hence Thence
Here There
Hither Thither
Last night The previous night
Last week The previous week
Next week The following week
Now Then
The day before yesterday The day before the previous day
The last fortnight The previous fortnight.
These Those
This That
Thus So
Today That day
Tomorrow The next day
Tonight That night
Yesterday The previous day


Rule No. 4

If Tense of Reporting Verb is either Present Tense or Future Tense, we do not make change in the Tense of Reported Speech.

जब Reporting Verb का Tense Present Tense या Future Tense हो तो Reported Speech के Tense में कोई परिवर्तन नही करते हैं । 

Rule No. 5

If any Universal Truth, Proverb, Habitual Act, Historical Fact, Unchanged Facts, or Imaginary Condition comes in Reported Speech, then Tense of Reported Speech does not change even if Reported Verb is of Past Tense.

यदि कोई सर्वकालिक सत्य, कहावत, आदतन क्रिया, एतिहासिक तथ्य, अपरिवर्तित तथ्य या काल्पनिक स्थिति Reported Speech में आये तब Reported Speech का Tense नही बदलता है चाहे Reported Verb भूत काल का हो ।

Rule No. 6

In all simple tenses, Comma (,) and Inverted Commas ("...") are removed and word 'That' is used to join both the parts.

सभी simple tense में Comma (,) और Inverted Commas ("...") को हटा कर शब्द 'That' का प्रयोग दोनों भागो को जोड़ने में करते है ।

Rule No. 7

For changing to Indirect Speech, Pronouns of Reported Speech are changed as per "S O N = 1 2 3" Rule.

S = Subject 1 = First Person
O = Object 2 = Second Person
N = No Change 3 = Third Person

If Person of Pronoun of Reported Speech is___ Rule Change the Person of Pronoun as per Reporting Verb's___
First Person S Subject
Second Person O Object
Third Person N No Change

Indirect Speech में परिवर्तन होने पर रिपोर्टेड़ स्पीच के Pronouns को "S O N = 1 2 3" के रूल से परिवर्तन करते है ।

Person Nominative Case Objective Case Possessive Case Reflexive Case
Ist Person I मैं My मेरा Me मुझे Myself मैं अपने-आप
Ist Person We हम Our हमारा Us हमे Ourselves हम अपने-आप
2nd Person You तुम Your तुम्हारा You तुम्हे Yourself तुम अपने-आप
3rd Person He वह His उसका Him उसे Himself वह अपने-आप
3rd Person She वह Her उसका Her उसे Herself वह अपने-आप
3rd Person They वे Their उनका Them उनको Themselves वे अपने-आप

1. She says to Kanika, "I will teach you and Avyan."
1. She tells Kanika that she will teach her and Avyan.

2. Avyan said to Swati, "I will give my toys to you."
2. Avyan told Swati that he would give his toys to her.

3. They said to me, "We have given our share to you"
3. They told me that they had given their share to me.

4. We will say to Heena, "You have brought her paintings to show us and your Mom."
4. We will tell Heena that she has brought her paintings to show us and her Mom.

5. She said to Manav, "I am in love and I want you to protect me.
5. She told Manav that she was in love and she wanted him to protect her.

6. He said, "You did not give me his address."
6. He said that he had not given him his address. (Object is not there. Assumed it of 3rd Person)
6. He said that I had not given him his address.(Object is not there. Assumed it of Ist Person)

Example No. Reported Verb's Pronouns of Reported Speech Change Person according to Reporting Verb's Person of it is... Changed Pronoun
Subject Object Pronouns Person
1 She Kanika I Ist S = Subject 3rd She
You 2nd O=Object 3rd Her
2 Avyan Swati I, My Ist S = Subject 3rd He, His
You 2nd O=Object 3rd Her
3 They Me We, Our Ist S = Subject 3rd They, Their
You 2nd O=Object Ist Me
4 We Heena You, Your 2nd O=Object 3rd She, Her
Her 3rd N=No Change 3rd Her
Us Ist S = Subject Ist Us
5 She Manav I Ist S = Subject 3rd She
You 2nd O=Object 3rd Him
Me Ist S = Subject 3rd Her
6 He No Object You 2nd O = Object No Object - treat 3rd *** He
Me Ist S=Subject 3rd Him
His 3rd N = No Change 3rd His

*** If Reporting Verb does not have 'Object', then for changing 2nd Person of Reporting Speech, we can assume any Person and make sentence accordingly. See example no 6.

*** अगर रिपोर्टिंग वर्ब में 'Object' ना हो तब Reporting Speech के 2nd person को बदलने के लिए हम कोई भी Person मान सकते है और वाक्य बना सकते है । देखो उदाहरण no. 6.

For changing Person, please note that if Person is plural, it will be changed to plural and if person is possessive, it will be changed to possessive pronouns. Helping Verbs of Reported Speech in Indirect Speech get changed as per changed Pronoun.

Person का परिवर्तन करते समय यह ध्यान रखे की यदि Person बहुवचन है तो परिवर्तन बहुवचन में होगा और यदि Person, possessive है तो यह possessive Pronoun में परिवर्तित होगा । अप्रत्यक्ष कथन के Reported Speech की सहायक क्रियांए परिवर्तित Pronoun के अनुसार बदल जाती है - देखे example no. 5 - 'am' को 'was' से बदला गया है ।

Examples of Simple Sentences

Direct अव्यन ने अपने पापा से कहा, "मैं तुम से प्यार करता हूँ ।" Avyan said to his father, "I love you."
Indirect अव्यन ने अपने पापा से कहा की वह उनसे प्यार करता था । Avyan told his father that he loved him
Direct वर्तिका ने भविन से कहा, "मैं तुम्हारा अखबार पढ रही हूँ ।" Vartika said to Bhavin, "I am reading your newspaper."
Indirect वर्तिका ने भविन से कहा की वह उनका अखबार पढ रही थी । Vartika told Bhavin that she was reading his newspaper.
Direct कनिका कहती है, "मैं स्वस्थ हूँ ।" Kanika says, "I am well"
Indirect कनिका कहती है की वह स्वस्थ है । Kanika tells that she is well.
Direct वह अपने पति से कहेगी, "रविंदर ने अपनी पत्नी से ठीक बर्ताव नही किया ।" She will say to her husband, "Ravinder did not treat his wife fairly."
Indirect वह अपने पति से कहेगी की रविंदर ने अपनी पत्नी से ठीक बर्ताव नही किया था । She will tell her husband that Ravinder did not treat his wife fairly.
Direct उसने कहा, "मैं तुम्हारे परिवार को अच्छी तरह जानती हूँ । मैं तुम्हारे दादाजी को भी जानती हूँ ।" She Said, "I know your family very well. I know your grandfather also."
Indirect उसने कहा की वह उसके परिवार को अच्छी तरह जानती है । वह उसके दादाजी को भी जानती है । She said that she knew his family very well. She know his grandfather also.
Direct अध्यापक ने विद्यार्थियों से कहा, "सूर्य पश्चिम में अस्त होता है ।" Teacher said to students, "The sun sets in the west."
Indirect अध्यापक ने विद्यार्थियों से कहा की सूर्य पश्चिम में अस्त होता है । Teacher told students that the sun sets in the west.
Direct नेहा ने शान्तुर से कहा, "ईमानदारी सबसे अच्छी नीति है ।" Neha said to Shantur, "Honesty is the best policy."
Indirect नेहा ने शान्तुर से कहा की ईमानदारी सबसे अच्छी नीति है । Neha told Shantur that Honesty is the best policy.
Direct मानव ने जय से कहा, "तुम सुबह से क्रिकेट खेल रहे हो ।" Manav said to Jai, "You have been playing cricket since morning."
Indirect मानव ने जय से कहा की वह सुबह से क्रिकेट खेल रहा था । Manav told Jai that he had been playing cricket since morning.
Direct शालिनी ने राजीव से कहा, "तुमने कल मेरी मदद की ।" Shalini said to Rajeev, "You have helped me yesterday."
Indirect शालिनी ने राजीव से कहा की उसने एक दिन पहले उसकी मदद की थी । Shalini told Rajeev that he had helped her the previous day.
Direct गुप्ता जी ने मुझे कहा, "तुम्हें तुम्हारा पदोन्नति पत्र कल मिलेगा ।" Gupta jee said to me, "You will get your promotion letter tomorrow."
Indirect गुप्ता जी ने मुझसे कहा की मुझे मेरा पदोन्नति पत्र अगले दिन मिलेगा । Gupta jee told me that I would get my promotion letter the next day.
Direct उसने कहा, "मि. ओबामा यू.एस.ए. के प्रेसिडेंट है ।" He said, "Mr Obama is the President of the USA."
Indirect उसने कहा की "मि. ओबामा यू.एस.ए.के प्रेसिडेंट है । (तथ्य में कोई परिवर्तन नही है इसलिये Tense नही बदला) He said that Mr Obama is the President of the USA. (Unchanged fact, hence Tense is not changed)

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