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Englishkitab >> Essential Grammar >> Active-Passive >> Passive-Gen-Rules
Active Passive
  1. General Rules of Passive Voice
  2. Passive Voice of Present Indefinite Tense
  3. Passive Voice of Present Continuous Tense
  4. Passive Voice of Present Perfect Tense
  5. Passive Voice of Past Indefinite Tense
  6. Passive Voice of Past Continuous Tense
  7. Passive Voice of Past Perfect Tense
  8. Passive Voice of Future Indefinite Tense
  9. Passive Voice of Future Perfect Tense
  10. Passive Voice of W-Family Words
  11. Passive Voice of Imperative Sentence
  12. Passive Voice of Sentences of Modals
  13. Passive Voice of Sentences of Infinitives
  14. Passive Voice of Miscellaneous Sentences

General Rules of Active Passive Voice

For changing Active Voice sentence to Passive Voice sentence, Object is converted to Subject and Subject is converted to Object.

Active Voice वाक्य को Passive Voice वाक्य बनाने के लिये Object को Subject बनाया जाता है तथा Subject को Object बनाया जाता है ।

Rule to convert Object into Subject - Object ko Subject banaane kaa Rule Object Word Object Word becomes Subject Word (on conversion) Object Word Object Word becomes Subject Word (on conversion)
1 Me I 5 Us We
2 You You 6 Them They
3 Him He 7 It It
4 Her She 8 Whom Who

Rule to convert Subject into object - Subject ko Object banaane kaa Rule Subject Word Subject Word becomes Object Word (on conversion) Subject Word Subject Word becomes Object Word (on conversion)
1 I Me 5 We Us
2 You You 6 They Them
3 He Him 7 It It
4 She Her 8 Who Whom


Verb, Forms of Verb and Use of 'By'

Normally Transitive Verbs are converted to Passive Voice. (The Verbs with which Objective is used, are Transitive Verbs. The action of the verb passes over the Object also. Where action of the Verb is limited up to Subject only, then it is Intransitive Verb. e.g. He makes a table. Action (making) of Subject (he) passes over to Object (table) also).

Third form of Verb is used in Passive Voice. Helping verbs - 'Is / Are / Am / Was / Were / Has / Have / Had / Will / Shall' PLUS 'Be / Being / Been' are used as per the Rule of the Tense.

Normally 'By' is used for the 'Subject of the Active Voice which becomes Object of the Passive Voice'. There are few verbs with which appropriate Preposition is used in place of 'By'.

Verb, Forms of Verb and Use of 'By'

साधारणतः Transitive Verb का ही Passive Voice बनता है । (ऐसी verb जिसके साथ Object का प्रयोग होता है, Transitive Verb कहलाती है । Verb का action Object पर भी pass होता है । जहां Verb का action Subject तक ही सीमित हो, वह Instransitive Verb है । जैसे - वह टेबल बनाता है - Action (बनाना) Object (टेबल) पर भी दिखा है)

Passive Voice में Verb की third form का प्रयोग होता है । सहायक क्रियांए - 'Is / Are / Am / Was / Were / Has / Have / Had / Will / Shall' और 'Be / Being / Been' वाक्य के प्रकार के नियमानुसार प्रयुक्त होती हैं । 

सामान्यतः 'By' का प्रयोग 'Active Voice का कर्ता जो Passive Voice में Object बनता है' के लिये किया जाता है । कुछ Verb ऐसी हैं जिसके बाद 'By' के स्थान पर 'Preposition' का प्रयोग होता है । 

When to Use Passive Voice

जब Subject के बारे में जानने की जरूरत ना हो या Subject का पता ना हो  जैसे -
खिड़की कल तोड़ी गई । 
नई दुकान लूटी गई ।
When there is no need to know about Subject or Subject is not known. e.g.
Window was broken yesterday.
New shop was robbed.
जब Object को महत्व Verb और/या Subject से ज्यादा देना हो ।  जैसे -
यह पेन गुरू जी द्वारा उपहार में दिया गया । 
शीला को चार्ल्स द्वारा गुलाब दिया गया ।
When an Object is to be accorded more importance than Verb and/or Subject. e.g.
This pen was gifted by Guruji.
Sheela was given a rose by Charles.

Note - The following Tenses cannot be changed into Passive Voice:

1. Present perfect continuous tense
2. Past perfect continuous tense
3. Future continuous tense
4. Future perfect continuous tense

Perfect the knowledge of Active Passive Voice by viewing a Passive Voice Sentence in all Tenses with its Rule CLICK & VIEW A PASSIVE VOICE SENTENCE IN ANY TYPE OF TENSE

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