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Englishkitab >> Essential Grammar >> Active-Passive

Active Voice

Sentences can be Active or Passive. Correspondingly, Verbs are either Active or Passive in voice. The difference between Active voice and Passive voice is simple. So far the sentences we have learnt are of Active Voice wherein Subject performs the Action.

वाक्य Active भी हो सकते है ओर Passive भी । उसी प्रकार क्रिया भी Active या Passive होती है । Active और Passive Voice में अन्तर बहुत सरल है । अभी तक हमने जो वाक्य सीखें है वे Active Voice के है जिनमे कर्ता (Subject) द्वारा कार्य किया जाता है ।

In the Active Voice, there is a straight relationship between the Subject and Verb - the subject is a Do-er. In other words, the Subject actively performs the Action; the Object receives the action of the verb; and the focus is on Subject. e.g. Ram killed Raavan . Subject is Ram, active action "Killing" is performed by Subject "Ram" and Object "Raavan " receives the action and got killed. The focus is on Ram.

Active Voice में कर्ता और क्रिया में सीधा सम्बन्ध है - कर्ता कार्य करने वाला है । दूसरे शब्दों में, कर्ता सीधे क्रिया सम्पन्न करता है; Object 'Verb के action' को प्राप्त करता है; और केन्द्र बिन्दु कर्ता होता है ।  जैसे - राम ने रावण को मारा । कर्ता राम है, क्रिया "मारना", कर्ता "राम" ने की और Object "रावण " ने क्रिया के एक्शन "मारना" को प्राप्त किया और मारा गया । केन्द्र बिन्दु राम है ।

In the Passive Voice, the roles of Subject and Object are reversed - the Subject is NOT a Do-er. In other words, the Subject passively performs the action and receives the action of the Verb; Object of the active verb becomes Subject of the passive Verb; and the focus is on Action (not on the Subject). It is not important (or not known) who performs the action. e.g. Raavan was killed by Ram. Object of active voice sentence "Raavan " has become Subject, and main focus is on action "killed".

Passive Voice में कर्ता (Subject) और कर्म (Object) के रोल विपरीत हो जाते है - कर्ता कार्य करने वाला नही है । दूसरे शब्दों में, कर्ता निष्क्रिय है और क्रिया के कार्य को प्राप्त करता है; Active क्रिया का ऑब्जेक्ट,passive क्रिया का सब्जेक्ट बन जाता है; और केन्द्र बिन्दु कार्य होता है (कर्ता नही) । यह महत्वपूर्ण नही है की कार्य किसने किया । जैसे - रावण मारा गया राम द्वारा । Active Voice वाक्य का ऑब्जेक्ट "रावण " सब्जेक्ट बन गया है और केन्द्र बिन्दु क्रिया "मारा गया" है ।

Look at the following Examples

वाक्य Sentence Voice Subject of the Sentence Action Performed By
सचिन क्रिकेट खेल रहा है । Sachin is playing cricket Active Voice Sachin Subject
क्रिकेट सचिन के द्वारा खेला जा रहा है । Cricket is being played by Sachin. Passive Voice Cricket Other than the Subject
जॉन किताब पढ़ता है । John reads a book. Active Voice John Subject
किताब जॉन द्वारा पढ़ी जाती है । A book is read by John. Passive Voice A Book Other than the Subject
वर्तिका ब्रेड़ खा चुकी है । Vartika has eaten bread. Active Voice Vartika Subject
ब्रेड़ वर्तिका द्वारा खाई जा चुकी है । Bread has been eaten by Vartika. Passive Voice Bread Other than the Subject
वह उनको पीट रहा है । He is beating them. Active Voice He Subject
वे उसके द्वारा पीटे जा रहे हैं । They are being beaten by him. Passive Voice They Other than the Subject


In the above examples, Subject is not performing action in Passive Voice sentences instead action is performed by some other. The sentences in which :-
(i) It is directly stated that action is done by someone (other than the subject);
(ii) it is not stated or hidden who has performed the main action (other than the subject)
are Passive Voice sentences.

उपरिलिखित उदाहरणों में, Passive Voice के वाक्यों में कर्ता कार्य नही कर रहा है बल्कि कार्य किसी और के द्वारा किया जा रहा है । वे वाक्य जिनमे :- 
(i) सीधे लिखा है की कार्य किसी के द्वारा किया गया है (कर्ता के अलावा); 
(ii) नही लिखा है या छिपा हुआ है की कार्य किसी के द्वारा किया गया है (कर्ता के अलावा); 
Passive Voice कहलाते है ।

Examples of Passive Voice

Passive Voice sentence (without Do-er Subject of Active Voice) raises a question in mind "By whom?"
थीसिस लिखी गई । >> किसके द्वारा >> (Dr हृदया द्वारा)
Dr हृदया ने थीसिस लिखी ।-Active Voice 
थीसिस Dr हृदया द्वारा लिखी गई ।-Passive Voice
The thesis was written. >> By whom >> (by Dr Hridaya)
Dr Hridaya wrote the thesis -Active Voice
A thesis was written by Dr Hridaya.-Passive Voice
अखबार पढा गया । >> किसके द्वारा >> (मेरे द्वारा) Newspaper was read. >> By whom >> (by me)
खाना पकाया जा रहा है । >> किसके द्वारा >> (हीना द्वारा) Food is being cooked. >> By whom >> (by Heena)
जादू दिखाया गया । >> किसके द्वारा >> (जादूगर द्वारा) Magic was shown. >> By whom >> (By the magician)
खिड़की तोड़ी गई है । >> किसके द्वारा >> (चोरों द्वारा) The window has been broken >> By whom >> (by thieves)
टेलिफोन का आविष्कार किया गया । >> किसके द्वारा >> (अलेकज़ेंडर ग्राहम बेल द्वारा) Telephone was invented. >> By whom >> (by Alexander Graham Bell)

Active Passive Rules
We will learn making Passive Voice of the following topics separately to gain better understanding.
  1. General Rules of Passive Voice
  2. Passive Voice of Present Indefinite Tense
  3. Passive Voice of Present Continuous Tense
  4. Passive Voice of Present Perfect Tense
  5. Passive Voice of Past Indefinite Tense
  6. Passive Voice of Past Continuous Tense
  7. Passive Voice of Past Perfect Tense
  8. Passive Voice of Future Indefinite Tense
  9. Passive Voice of Future Perfect Tense
  10. Passive Voice of W-Family Words
  11. Passive Voice of Imperative Sentence
  12. Passive Voice of Sentences of Modals
  13. Passive Voice of Sentences of Infinitives
  14. Passive Voice of Miscellaneous Sentences

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