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ELC-44th Day-P4

44th Day - Today we shall learn in detail about Noun.
Nouns are the most important words in English language. Many nouns look singular but they are used as plural and many nouns look plural but are used as singular. Understanding of Noun is essential for learning good English.

The Noun

Singular and Plural Noun

Singular Noun means one noun e.g. cat, dog, boy, girl, gift, car. Plural Noun means more than one nouns e.g. boys, girls, speakers, people, players. For making plural noun, 's/es' is added with the Regular Noun. The rule of adding 's/es' is given below:

Singular Noun का अर्थ है एक noun जैसे बिल्ली, कुत्ता, लड़का, लड़की, उपहार, कार ।  प्लुरल Noun का अर्थ है एक से ज्यादा noun जैसे लड़के, लड़कियां, बोलने वाले वक्ता, लोग, खिलाड़ी ।  प्लुरल noun बनाने के लिये 's/es' Regular Noun के साथ जोड़ा जाता है ।  's/es' जोड़ने का नियम नीचे दिया गया है:

Last letter of Noun Add " " with Noun Examples
ch, s, x or s sound es Watch-watches, Bus-buses, boss-bosses, Fax-faxes
f or fe ves Wife-wives, knife-knives, leaf-leaves, life-lives
y (when second last letter is a consonant) ies Study-studies, city-cities, penny-pennies, spy-spies
y (when second last letter is a vowel) s Day-days, key-keys, toy-toys, spray-sprays
o (there is no firm rule) es Tomato-tomatoes, hero-heroes, buffalo-buffaloes, mosquito-mosquitoes
o (there is no firm rule) s Auto-autos, studio-studios, photo-photos, kilo-kilos
o (there is no firm rule) s or es Tornado-tornados/tornadoes, cargo-cargos/cargoes
most of the nouns s Bottle-bottles, prize-prizes, speaker-speakers, rat-rats
Compound Nouns ('s' is added to principal word s Courts-of-law, men-of-war, commanders-in-chief, sons-in-law

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For making plural of an Irregular Noun a different word is formed.

Irregular noun का बहुवचन बनाने के लिये अलग शब्द बनाया जाता है ।

Examples: Man-men, woman-women, mouse-mice, tooth-teeth, foot-feet, goose-geese, child-children, ox-oxen, person-people.

Few nouns are always plural and look plural. It cannot be made singular by removing ending 's' from them.

कुछ noun हमेशा plural होते है और प्लुरल दिखते है । इनको आखिर में लगे 's' को हटा कर सिंगुलर नही बनाया जा सकता है ।

Examples : Assets, congratulations, particulars, proceedings, regards, thanks, wages, vegetables, scissors, goggles, spectacles, belongings, trousers, pants, ashes, arrears, troops, archives, seals, savings, tactics.

मेरे चश्में कहां है ? Where are my spectacles?
तुम्हारे माता-पिताजी को हमारा नमस्कार कहना । Convey our regards to your parents.
उसकी सारी सम्पत्ति वेबसाइट पर घोषित थी । All his assets were declared on website.
मेरे विवरण Facebook पर उपलब्ध है । My particulars are available on Facebook.

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Few nouns look plural but actually they are singular.

कुछ Noun प्लुरल दिखते है परन्तु वास्तव में वे सिंगुलर होते है ।

Examples : News, mathematics, economics, physics, politics, innings, mechanics, ethics.

गणित मेरा पसन्दीदा विषय है । Mathematics is my favourite subject.
सुबह के समाचार मेरे नाश्ते के साथी है । Morning news are my companion for breakfast.
मेरी दूसरी पारी मेरी जिन्दगी की सफलता का निर्णय करने जा रही है । My second innings is going to decide my success in life.
आजकल आचारनीति महत्वपूर्ण नही है । Now a days ethics is not important.

Few nouns look singular but actually they are plural.

कुछ Noun सिंगुलर दिखते है परन्तु वास्तव में वे प्लुरल होते है ।

Examples : Cattle, gentry, infantry, people, poultry.

उसके पास 20 पॉल्ट्री (मुर्गी) है । He has twenty poultry chicken.
पशु घास चार रहे है । Cattle are grazing grass.
हमारी सोसायटी की जेंट्री अच्छी है । The gentry are good in our society.
हमारी सेना उच्च तकनीकी के हथियारों से सुसज्जित है । Our infantry are equipped with high tech weapons.

Few nouns are always used in singular form.

कुछ Noun हमेशा सिंगुलर फोर्म में प्रयुक्त होते है ।

Examples : Poetry, furniture, information, hair, bread, luggage, knowledge, jewellery, crockery, scenery. These nouns cannot be made plural by adding 's'. For making plural, few words are added.

हरा दृश्य सभी द्वारा पसंद किया जाता है । Green scenery is always liked by all.
फ्लैट में फर्नीचर बिल्डर द्वारा दिया गया है । Furniture in the flat is provided by the builder.
मेरे बाल काले हैं । My hair is black.
अच्छी ज्वैलरी सभी महिलाओं का ध्यान आकर्षित करती है । Good jewellery catches eyes of all women.
उसने कुछ ज्वैलरी की चीजें खरीदी । She bought a few articles of jewellery.
तुम कई प्रकार के फर्नीचर बड़े शोरूम में देख सकते हो । You can see many kinds of furniture in big showroom.

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Few nouns remain same in singular and plural forms.

कुछ Noun सिंगुलर और प्लुरल प्रयोग में समान रहते है ।

Examples : fish, jury, team, aircraft, counsel.

हमारी टीम ने मैच जीत लिया है । Our team has won the match.
सभी टीमों ने अपना सर्वोत्तम प्रदर्शन किया है । All the team have performed their best.
मछली घर में काफी मछलियां सुनहरी मछली के चारों तरफ तैर रही थी । A lot of fish in the aquarium were swimming around the golden fish.
पंचायत बेंच (न्यायधीश का स्थान) पर बैठी है । The jury is sitting on the bench.
पंच आपस में चर्चा कर रहें है । The jury are discussing among themselves.

Few nouns are plural in meaning but cannot be pluralised if a definite number adjective is before it. If such nouns are used with indefinite countables then they are used as plurals.

कुछ Noun अर्थ में प्लुरल होते है परन्तु उनके प्लुरल नही बनाया जा सकता यदि निश्चित संख्या adjective उसके पहले आए । अगर ऐसे noun अनिश्चित countable (गणन-योग्य) के साथ प्रयुक्त हो तो उनका प्लुरल प्रयोग होता है ।

Examples : Pair, dozen, hundred, thousand, million, billion.

मेरे पास पाँच सौ रूपये है । I have five hundred rupees only.
सैंकड़ो कुत्ते जंगले में भौंक रहे थे । Hundreds of dogs were barking in the forest.
नेहा के पास दस जोड़ी जूते घर पर हैं । Neha has ten pair of shoes at home.
उसके पास भी कई जोड़ी जूते है । He also has many pairs of shoes.
दर्जनों लड़कियाँ बाग में खेल रही है । Dozens of girls are playing in the garden.
दो दर्जन केले कार में रखे है । Two dozen bananas are kept in the car.

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'Noun + preposition + same noun' remains singular

'Noun + Prepositipm + वही noun' सिंगुलर रहते है ।

Examples : Door to door, Speech after speech, Award after award, Row after row

वहां पर्वतों की कतार पर कतार थी । There was row after row of mountains.
घर-घर बेचना बहुत कठिन है । Selling door to door is very tough.
उसने अपने उत्तम प्रदर्शन से ईनाम पर इनाम जीते है । She has won award after award for her excellent performance.
नेता बिना थके भाषण पर भाषण दे सकते है । Leaders can deliver speech after speech without getting tired.

Few nouns have two types of plurals with different meaning:

कुछ Noun के दो प्रकार के अलग अर्थ वाले प्लुरल होते है ।

Brother Brothers - Sons of same parent.
Brethern - Members of same society or community.
Cloth Cloths - Unstitched cloth
Clothes - Stitched clothes.
Die Dies - Stamps used for printing
Dice - Cubes used in games.

Meaning of few nouns changes when they are pluralised by adding 's/es'.

कुछ Noun का अर्थ बदल जाता है जब 's/es' लगाकर प्लुरल बनाया जाता है ।

Air हवा Airs
Alphabet वर्णमाला Alphabets
Manner तरीका Manners
Premise प्रस्तावना Premises
Iron लोहा Irons
Effect प्रभाव Effects
Return वापसी Returns
Force शक्ति Forces
Abuse दुरुपयोग Abuses
Water पानी Waters
Ground जमीन Grounds
Quarter चौथाई भाग Quarters


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