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43rd Day - Today we shall learn about Participles.
Participle is also a form of Non-Finite Verb and a Verbal. It is commonly used and often confused with Gerund hence its knowledge is necessary.

The Participle

A Participle is also one of the three types of Non-Finite Verbs. Participle is also a Verbal. (Words that are formed from verbs but don't act as verbs are called Verbal).

Participle भी Non-Finite वर्ब के तीन प्रकारो में से एक है । Participle भी एक Verbal है । (शब्द जो verb से बना हो परंतु verb की तरह कार्य नही करे वह Verbal कहलाता है) ।

Uses of Participle

(a) Present Participle is used to form Present, Past and Future Continuous Tenses.

(a) प्रेज़ेंट, पास्ट और फ्यूचर कंटिन्युअस टेन्स बनाने के लिये प्रेज़ेंट Participle का प्रयोग होता है । 

Examples

वह पढ़ रही है । She is reading.
वह काम कर रहा था । He was working.
वे मुझे पत्र लिख रहे होंगे । They will be writing a letter to me.
वे सो रहे थे । They were sleeping.

(b) Past Participle is used to form Present, Past and Future Perfect Tenses.

(b) प्रेज़ेंट, पास्ट और फ्यूचर पर्फेक्ट टेन्स बनाने के लिये पास्ट Participle का प्रयोग होता है । 

Examples

उसने ऑफिस छोड़ दिया है । She has left the office.
वह मेरा नाम भूल गया था । He had forgotten my name.
मिस्टर बंसल ने मेरी ट्रांसफर की सिफारिश की थी । Mr Bansal had recommended my transfer.
तुम अब तक अपना प्रॉजेक्ट पूरा कर चुके होंगे । You will have completed your project by now.

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(c) Present Participle and Past Participle are used as Adjective.

(c) प्रेज़ेंट Participle और पास्ट Participle का प्रयोग Adjective की तरह किया जाता है ।

Examples

वाक्य Sentence Participle Qualifying Noun
यह एक मजेदार पुस्तक है । It is an interesting book. interesting book
वह एक उबाऊ पिक्चर थी । That was a boring movie. boring movie
वह दुकानदार चुराया हुआ सामान बेचता है । That shopkeeper sells stolen goods. stolen goods
उसने मुझे फूटे हुए ग्लास में पानी दिया । He gave me water in a cracked glass. cracked glass

(d) Present Participle can combine two main sentences. When Subject of both the main sentences are same and the Subject is performing more than one actions at the same time, then Present Participle is used for an action.

(d) प्रेज़ेंट Participle दो मुख्य वाक्यों को जोड़ सकते हैं । जब दोनो वाक्यों का सब्जेक्ट वही हो और सब्जेक्ट (कर्ता) एक से ज्यादा कार्य उसी समय में (simultaneously) कर रहा हो तब एक कार्य के लिये प्रेज़ेंट Participle का प्रयोग किया जाता है
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Examples

Sentence Sentence Sentence with Participle Participle वाक्य
She came to open the door. She was dancing. She came to open the door dancing. वह नृत्य करते हुए दरवाज़ा खोलने आई ।
Papa gave me his Laptop. He was smiling. Papa gave me his Laptop smiling. पापा ने मुस्कराते हुए मुझे अपना लेपटॉप दिया ।
Everybody came out of the Big Cinema Hall after watching PK movie. Everybody was smiling. Everybody came out of the Big Cinema Hall smiling after watching PK movie. बिग सिनेमा हॉल से PK पिक्चर देखने के बाद हर एक मुस्कराते हुए बाहर आया ।
She opened the door. She displayed her diamond necklace. Opening the door she displayed her diamond necklace. दरवाज़ा खोलते हुए उसने अपना हीरे का हार दिखलाया ।

(e) Present Participle can replace a Subordinate clause. Normally subordinate clause starts with As/Since/Because + Subject + Verb. Such subordinate clauses can be replaced by adding 'Ing' with the Verb - Present Participle.

(e) Present Participle Subordinate clause के बदले में प्रयुक्त हो सकते हैं । आमतौर पर Subordinate clause As/Since/Because + Subject + Verb से शुरू होती है । Subordinate clause के स्थान पर वर्ब में 'Ing' जोड़कर - प्रेज़ेंट Participle प्रयोग किया जा सकता है ।

Examples

Sentence Verb + 'Ing' Sentence with Participle Participle वाक्य
Because/As/Since she is a girl, she is allowed to go early. Be + Ing Being a girl, she is allowed to go early. लड़की होने के नाते, उसे जल्दी जाने की अनुमति दी गयी है ।
Because/As/Since he understood that he cannot pass the test, he did not appear for it. Understand + Ing Understanding that he cannot pass the test, he did not appear for it. समझते हुए की वह टेस्ट पास नही कर सकता है, वह इसके लिये हाजिर नही हुआ ।
As/Since/Because she knows that Inder is a man of principle, she thought to play a trick against him. Know + Ing Knowing that Inder is a man of principle, she thought to play a trick against him. जानते हुए की इन्दर एक सिद्धांत का पक्का आदमी है, उसने उसके विरुद्ध एक चाल चलने की सोची ।
As/Since/Because he walked very fast, he can reach her home within 15 minutes. Walk + Ing Walking very fast, he can reach her home within 15 minutes. तेज चलते हुए वह उसके घर 15 मिनिट के अंदर पहुंच सकता है ।

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(f) Participles can modify Subject as well as Object of the sentence. Participles can be used as complement of Object also.

(f) Participle वाक्य के Subject और Object की भी विशेषता बताते हैं । Participle का प्रयोग Object के complement के रुप में भी किया जाता है ।

Examples

वाक्य Sentence
वह उसके काम से संतुष्ट लगता है । He appears satisfied with his work.
वह प्रभावित है । He is impressed.
उसने रजत को एक घंटे दौड़वाया । She made Rajat run for an hour.
गुप्ताजी ने सबको मंत्रमुग्ध रखा । Guptaji kept everyone mesmerised.
उसने अपनी मां को काम करते हुए देखा । She saw her mother working.
सरला ने अपने पति को एक लड़की के साथ इश्कबाजी करते हुए पाया । Sarla found her husband flirting with a girl.

(g) Past Participle can also combine two main sentences which represents a completed action or time.

(g) Past Participle भी दो मुख्य वाक्यों को जोड़ सकते हैं जो पूर्ण हुए कार्य या समय को दर्शाते हैं ।

Examples

Sentence Sentence Sentence with Participle Participle वाक्य
He was deceived by his friend. He became bankrupt. Deceived by his friend, he became bankrupt. उसके दोस्त के द्वारा धोखा देने के बाद वह दिवालिया हो गया ।
Kurmee was robbed by a hooligan. Kurmee lodged an FIR in the nearest police station. Robbed by a hooligan, Kurmee lodged an FIR in the nearest police station. एक गुंड़े द्वारा लूटने के बाद, कूर्मी ने नजदीकी पुलिस स्टेशन में FIR दर्ज की ।
The Principal was pressurised by strong protest of students. Principal allowed the students to celebrate Valentine Day in College. Pressurised by strong protest of students, Principal allowed students to celeberate Valentine Day in college. विद्यार्थियों के कड़े विरोध से प्रभावित होकर, प्रिन्सिपल ने विद्यार्थियों को कॉलेज में प्रेम-इजहार दिवस मनाने की इजाजत दी ।
We saw trees in Uttar Pradesh. Trees were laden with mangoes. We saw trees in Uttar Pradesh laden with mangoes. हमने उत्तर प्रदेश में आम से लदे पेड़ देखे ।

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Use of Participle as Preposition

There are certain Participles which are used as Preposition and their use does not fall under Dangling/Misrelated Participles.

कुछ Participles Preposition की भांति प्रयुक्त होते हैं और उनका प्रयोग Dangling/Misrelated Participle के अंतर्गत नही आता है ।

Examples

Considering the expected delay, I extended my rent agreement. अपेक्षित देरी को ध्यान में रखते हुए, मैने अपने रेंट एग्रीमेंट को आगे बढ़ा लिया ।
Judging the attitude of her, I decided to write my Will. उसके रवैय्ये को देखते हुए, मैने अपनी वसीयत को लिखने का निर्णय लिया ।
Allowing for the exception, you have opened a pandara box. अपवाद को मंजूरी देकर, तुमने एक पिटारा खोल दिया है ।
Referring to your point, the judge may reconsider the judgement. तुम्हारे तर्क का हवाला देकर, जज निर्णय पर पुनः विचार कर सकता है ।
Speaking frankly, you do not deserve this post. स्पष्ट बोल रहा हूँ, तुम इस पद के योग्य नही हो ।


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