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ELC-42nd Day - Page-3

42nd Day - Today we shall learn about Gerund.
Gerund is also a form of Non-Finite Verb and a Verbal. It is used in most of the sentences hence its knowledge is necessary.

The Gerund

Perfect Gerund

So far we have learnt about Simple Gerunds where Gerunds refer to the same time as that of the verb in the main clause. The Perfect Gerund refers to a time before that of the verb in the main clause. To express an activity of past, "having + gerund" is used. For example -
(1)He denied being selected :- Simple Gerund refers to the same time as that of the verb 'selected'. He denited that he was selected.
(2)He denied having been selected :- Perfect Gerund refers to a time before that of the verb 'selected'. He denied that he had been selected.

अभी तक हमने सिंपल Gerund के बारे में पढ़ा है जहाँ Gerund उसी समय को इंगित करता है जो मुख्य क्रिया का है । पर्फेक्ट Gerund मुख्य क्रिया के समय से पहले के समय को इंगित करता है । भूतकाल की क्रिया को व्यक्त करने के लिये, "having + gerund" का प्रयोग होता है । उदाहरण -
(1) उसने चुने जाने से इंकार किया :- सिंपल Gerund वर्ब 'चुने जाने' के समय को ही इंगित करता है । उसने इंकार किया की वह चुना गया था । 
(2) उसने चुने जा चुकने से इंकार किया :- Perfect Gerund वर्ब 'चुने जाने' के समय से पहले के समय (भूतकाल) को इंगित करता है । उसने इंकार किया की वह चुना जा चुका था ।
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Examples

वाक्य Sentence
उस पर गड़बड़ी करने का दोष लगाया गया था । He was blaimed for having made the mess.
उसने मना किया की उससे बात की है । She denied having spoken with him.
किराये पर मकान मिलने पर, हमने शिफ्टिंग के लिये पैकर और मूवर को खोजा । Having found a house on rent, we looked for packer & mover for shifting.
गलती करने के लिये मुझे खेद है । I am sorry for having made a mistake.
उस पर डकैती में शामिल होने का आरोप लगाया गया था। He was accused of having been involved in the robbery.
मुझे उससे एक बार पहले मिल चुके होने का याद है । I remember having met her once before.
वह अपनी मां के प्रति अपनी नैतिक जिम्मेदारी ना पूरी करने के लिये कसूरवार महसूस कर रही थी । She was feeling guilty for not having fulfilled her moral duty towards her mother.

Passive Gerund

Passive forms of Gerund are used to describe that the subject of the sentence is being acted upon. Passive Gerunds can be of Simple Gerund, Continuous Gerund and Perfect Gerund. To understand it, please look at the following sentences:
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Gerund की Passive फॉर्म यह बताने के लिये प्रयुक्त होती है की वाक्य का कर्ता प्रभावित किया जा रहा है । Passive Gerund, simple Gerund, Continuous Gerund और Perfect Gerund हो सकता है ।  इसे समझने के लिये, निम्नलिखित वाक्यों को देखें:

Gerund वाक्य Sentence Sentence
Simple वर्तिका पढ़ाना पसंद करती है । Vartika likes teaching. Vartika likes to teach.
Continuous वर्तिका दूसरों को पढ़ाना पसंद कर रही है । Vartika is liking teaching others. Vartika is liking to teach others.
Passive अव्यन पढ़ाया जाना पसंद करता है । Avyan likes being taught. Avyan wants to be taught.
Perfect वर्तिका ने पढ़ाया होना याद किया । Vartika recalled having taught. Vartika recalled that she had already taught.
Passive + Continuous अव्यन वर्तिका द्वारा पढ़ाया जाना पसंद कर रहा है । Avyan is liking being taught by Vartika. Avyan would like to be being taught by Vartika.
Passive + Perfect कनिका ने भी वर्तिका द्वारा पढ़ाये जाने को याद किया । Kanika also recalled having been taught by Vartika. Kanika also recalled that she had been taught by Vartika.

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Examples of Gerund Usages

वाक्य Sentence
आग में लगभग 20 लोग जलकर मर गये । In the fire about 20 people died of burning.
अगर तुम दोनो हाथो में सामान लेकर आओगे तो तुम्हें अपनी कोहनी से दरवाजे की घंटी बजानी पड़ेगी । If you come holding things in your both hands, you will have to press the door bell by your elbow.
अपनी ग्रेजुएशन पूरी करके वह एक राजनैतिक पार्टी से जुड़ गई । Having completed her graduation, she joined a political party.
दूसरों के दोष निकालना आसान होता है । It is easy finding other's faults.
एक आदमी ने ATM को हथोड़े से मारकर तोड़ दिया है । A man has broken the ATM by hitting hammer on it.
गलत सलाह लेना तुम्हें महंगा पड़ सकता है । Taking wrong advice may cost you.
हमने अंडे खाना बंद कर दिया है । We have stopped taking eggs.
हमने तुम्हारे जवाब का इंतजार करते हुए दो घण्टे बिता दिये हैं । We have passed two hours waiting for your reply.
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हँसना बंद करो, तुम चारो । Stop laughing, you four.
इस दुकान में खरीदने लायक कुछ भी नही है । There is nothing worth buying in this shop.
मैं हर रविवार सैर करने जाता हूँ । I go walking every Sunday.
मैं रिटायरमेंट लेने की सोच रहा हूँ । I am thinking of taking retirement.
मैने तुम्हारी उससे मुलाकात पर आपत्ति की । I objected to your meeting with her.
मुझे दिन के समय सेाना अच्छा नही लगता । I don't like sleeping during day time.
मुन्नी बुलाना उसे अच्छा नही लगता । She does not like being called Munni.
विदा कहकर वह सुबह घर के लिये निकल गया । Saying goodbye he left for his home in the morning.
स्विच को दबाने से पहले प्लग को अच्छी तरह लगाओ । Push in the plug properly before pressing the switch.
उसके देर होने की बहुत कम संभावना है । There is a remote possibility of his getting late.
उससे शादी करना मेरे जीवन का सर्वोत्तम निर्णय था । Marrying her was the best decision of my life.
वह TV सीरियल देखते हुए कुर्सी पर बैठी थी । She was sitting in a chair watching TV serial.

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