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The Verb - P-2

Finite Verbs

A Finite verb (sometimes called main verbs) is a verb that has a subject and changes its form according to tense and the number & person of the subject. They are used in tense and can be indicative of passive or active voice.

Finite verb (जिसे कभी कभी मुख्य verb भी कहते है) वह verb है जिसके साथ सब्जेक्ट होता है और इसकी form सब्जेक्ट के अनुसार टेन्स के मुताबिक बदलती है । वे टेन्स में प्रयुक्त होती है और वाक्य के active या passive होने का संकेत दे सकती है ।

Examples

मैं भारत में रहता हूँ । I live in India.
मैं जापान में कभी नही रहा । I never lived in Japan.
उसने कार चलाई । He drove the car.
पापा ने मेरे उन्नीसवें जन्मदिवस पर मुझे बाइक उपहार देने का वायदा किया है । Papa has promised to give me a bike on my 19th birthday.
मैं अनुगृहीत हुआ । I was obliged.
तुम सुन्दर हो । You are gorgeous.
उसके पास अद्वितीय व्यक्तित्व है । She has a unique personality.


Non-finite Verbs

A Non-Finite verb (also known as a verbal) has no subject, tense or number. It does not change its form according to the number and person of the subject. It is a verb form which is not acting like a verb (we need to form a sentence). It is a verb form which functions as a noun or an adjective or an adverb.

Non-Finite वर्ब का सब्जेक्ट, टेन्स या नंबर नही होता । यह सब्जेक्ट के नंबर के अनुसार चेंज नही होती । यह वर्ब वास्तव में वाक्य बनाने वाली वर्ब नही है । यह वाक्य में नाउन या आड़्जेक्टिव की तरह कार्य करती है ।

Examples

मुझे पढ़ना पसंद है । I love reading .
वह पढ़ना पसंद करती है । She loves reading.
मैं सभी को इंग्लिश सीखने की सलाह देता हूँ । I advise all to learn English.
वह सभी को इंग्लिश सीखने की सलाह देता है । He advises all to learn English.
मैं अपना डिनर ले रहा हूँ । I am having my dinner.
वे अपना डिनर ले रहे हैं । They are having their dinner.
क्या हम रविवार को मछली पकड़ने जाते हैं ? Do we go fishing on Sunday?
क्या वह रविवार को मछली पकड़ने जाता है ? Does he go fishing on Sunday?

Types of Non-finite Verbs

There are three types of non-finite verbs Infinitives, Gerunds and Participles.

We will learn in detail about The Infinitive in upcoming lessons.
We will learn in detail about The Gerund in upcoming lessons.
We will learn in detail about The Participle in upcoming lessons.

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Auxiliary Verbs

Auxiliary Verbs are of two types:
1. Primary Auxiliary Verbs
2. Modals

Primary Auxiliary verbs (also known as Helping Verbs) are verbs that are used together with the main verb of the sentence to express the action or state. They support the main verbs to form the structure of sentence as per specific tense. Primary Auxiliary Verbs are of three types:

सहायक क्रिया वह क्रिया है जो वाक्य में मुख्य verb के साथ क्रिया या स्थिति को दर्शाने में प्रयुक्त होती है । यह मुख्य verb को प्रत्येक tense के अनुसार वाक्य बनाने में सहायक होती है ।

Auxiliary (Helping) Verbs have already been covered earlier. Few examples are given hereunder:

Verbs "TO BE" - Is, am, are, was, were
After Subject + Is, am, are, was, were; Noun, Pronoun, Adjective, gerund, etc. are used.
वह अर्थशास्त्री है । He is an economist.
यह मैं था । It was me.
यह मेरी है । It is mine.
वे गुंड़े है । They are hooligans.
वह खुश है । She is happy.
एकदम काला अंधेरा है । It is dark black.
मेरी मम्मी पूरी तरह थकी हुई है । My mother is fully tired.
वह उसकी कार थी । That was his car.
कल यह अच्छी हालत में थी । Yesterday it was in good condition.
आपके साथ डॉन्स करना बहुत अच्छा है । It is so nice dancing with you.
बीते वक़्त पर रोना ठीक नही है । It is no good crying over the past.
मेरा ऑफिस मेट्रो स्टेशन के नजदीक है । My office is near the Metro station.
These are used with W-family words to ask a question.
तुम्हारा नाम क्या है ? What is your name?
तुम्हारी पुस्तकें कौन सी है ? Which are your books?
तुम्हारे नजदीकी कहलाने वाले दोस्त कहाँ थे ? Where were your so called close friends?
तुम्हारे साथ कौन था ? Who was with you?

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Use of 'To' Infinitive after Is, am, are, was, were
शान्तुर को अप्रेल में आना है । Shantur is to come in April.
मुझे सभी को अलविदा कहना है । I am to say good bye to all.
उनको रिसेप्शन पार्टी में शामिल होना था । They were to attend the reception party.
अब किसको दोष देना है । Now who is to be blamed?
क्या यह कार आज 400 मील चलनी है? Is this car to run 400 miles today?
Use of 'There' and 'It' with Is, am, are, was, were
रोड़ पर बहुत बड़ा जाम था । There was a big jam on the road.
हमारे अपार्टमेंट में बहुत फ्लैट खाली है । There are many vacant flats in our apartment.
बचने का कोई रास्ता नही है । There is no way to escape.
वहां कई विदेशी थे । There were many foreigners.
आपसे मिलना मेरी खुशी है । It is my pleasure to meet you.
यह उसकी बारी थी । It was his turn.
आपके साथ समय बिताना बहुत ही अद्भुत है । It is so wonderful to spend sometime with you.
योगा क्लास से जुड़ना एक समझदारी का कदम है । It is a wise step to join yoga classes.
Miscellaneous uses
तुम्हारा दोस्त यहाँ है! Here is your friend!
अमीर आदमी के लिये बहुत सारी विलासिता की वस्तुएँ खरीदना आसान है । It is easy for a rich person to buy a lot of luxuries.
निर्णय लिया है की उसकी मेल का जवाब नही देना है । It is decided not to respond to his mails.
काश मैं एक बाघ होता! If I were a tiger!



Verbs 'TO HAVE' - Has, have, had
मेरे पास तीन कार है । I have three cars.
उसके चार भाई है । She has four brothers.
उसके पांच घनिष्ठ मित्र थे । He had five close friends.
गाय की चार टांगे है । A cow has four legs.
रितिक के एक हाथ में 6 उंगलियां है । Hritik has six fingers in one hand.
मेरे कमरे में 2 अलमारी थी । My room had two almirahs.
मैंने ठीक 1 बजे मेरा लंच ले लिया था । I had my lunch at sharp 1 o'clock.
मुझे उससे बात करने में कोई दिक्कत नही आई थी । I had no problem in talking with her.
मुझे मेरे बॉस से कई मेल मिली थी । I had received number of mails from my boss.
उसकी अड़ियल प्रवृति है । She has a stubborn attitude.
Verbs 'TO DO' - Do, does, did
वह काम करता तो है (जरूर करता है) । He does work.
मैं आराम करता तो हूँ (अवश्य करता हूँ) । I do take rest.
वह उसे झिड़कती तो है (अवश्य झिड़कती है) । She does rebuke him.
मैंढक उछलता तो है (जरूर उछलता है) । Frog does jump.
मुझे फोन अवश्य करें । Do give me a ring.
मुझे शाम को अवश्य याद दिलांए । Do remind me in the evening.

Modals

Another type of Auxiliary Verbs (will, shall, may, can, may, would, should, could, might, must, ought, dare, need, used to) are known as Modal Verbs. We will learn about Modals in upcoming lessons.

Agreement between Verb and Subject

It is very important to learn the use of Verb with each Parts of Sentence. It is necessary to understand Agreement between Verb and Subject for learning good English.

Pages of Current Lesson

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