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The Participle

A Participle is also one of the three types of Non-Finite Verbs. Participle is also a Verbal. (Words that are formed from verbs but don't act as verbs are called Verbal).

Participle भी Non-Finite वर्ब के तीन प्रकारो में से एक है । Participle भी एक Verbal है । (शब्द जो verb से बना हो परंतु verb की तरह कार्य नही करे वह Verbal कहलाता है) ।

Dangling or Unattached or Unrelated or Misrelated Participle

When Participle is not correctly attached / related with Subject, then this error is known as Dangling or Unattached or Unrelated or Misrelated Participle. To avoid such error, it is necessary to know where Participle is to be used and where it should not be used.

जब Participle सब्जेक्ट के साथ सही प्रकार से जुड़ा / सम्बंधित नही होता तब उस भूल को Dangling या Unattached या Unrelated या Misrleated Participle से जाना जाता है । ऐसी भूल से बचने के लिये यह जानना जरूरी है की कब और कहाँ Participle का प्रयोग किया जाना है ।

Participles are Adjective and describe about the Noun/Pronoun. Hence there must be a relation between Participle and Noun/Pronoun. If the relation is not there, it is Misrelated Participle.

Many sentences have two parts. When Subject of both the parts is same, then Participle can act as Subject of First part. This use of Participle is correct. When Subject of both parts are different and Participle is used in first part without Subject, then it comes into the category of Misrelated Participle.

Participles विशेषण है और संज्ञा/सर्वनाम का वर्णन करते हैं । इसलिये Participle और संज्ञा/सर्वनाम के मध्य एक सम्बंध होना आवश्यक है । अगर वहां सम्बंध नही है तो यह Misrelated Participle है ।

कई वाक्यों के दो भाग होते हैं । जब दोनो भागों का सब्जेक्ट एक है, तब पहले भाग में Participle सब्जेक्ट का काम कर सकता है । Participle का यह प्रयोग सही है । जब दोनो भाग के सब्जेक्ट अलग है और पहले भाग में बिना सब्जेक्ट के Participle का प्रयोग किया जाता है तो यह Misrelated Participle की श्रेणी में आता है ।

Examples

Sentence Noun/Pronoun - Participle Correct with Noun/Pronoun Participle वाक्य
Being a stormy day, I could not view clearly. Noun/Pronoun missing with Participle "Being" It being a stormy day, I could not view clearly. तूफ़ानी दिन होने के कारण मैं स्पष्ट नही देख सका ।
Hearing yesterday night, I got surprised. Noun/Pronoun missing with Participle "Hearing " Hearing the sound yesterday night, I got surprised. कल रात को आवाज सुनकर मैं चकित हो गया ।
Waiting for a bus, a dog bit me. Noun/Pronoun missing with Participle "Waiting " When I was waiting for a bus, a dog bit me. जब मैं बस का इंतजार कर रहा था, एक कुत्ते ने मुझे काट लिया ।
Sleeping in my room, a nurse came to check temperature. Subject missing with Ist part While I was sleeping in my room, a nurse came to check temperature. जिस दौरान मैं अपने कमरे में सो रहा था, एक नर्स तापमान देखने के लिये अंदर आई ।
Standing near the gate, a scooter hit her. Subject missing with Ist part While she was standing near the gate, a scooter hit her. जिस दौरान वह गेट के पास खड़ी थी, एक स्कुटर ने उसे टक्कर मार दी ।
Digging in his courtyard, Amit got many gold coins. Subject of both part is same, use of Participle is correct. Digging in his courtyard, Amit got many gold coins. अपने बरामदे में खोदते हुए अमित को कई सोने के सिक्के मिले ।
Digging in his courtyard, a scorpion stung him. Subject of both part is different, use of Participle is incorrect. While Amit was digging in his courtyard, a scorpion stung him. जिस दौरान अमित अपने बरामदे में खोद रहा था, तब एक बिच्छु ने उसे डंक मारा ।

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Difference between Gerund and Participle

Both Gerund and Participle are Non-Finite Verbs and are Verbal. A verbal is a word which is formed from verb but does not act as verb in sentence.
A gerund is a kind of noun that we make from a verb by adding 'Ing' like: Work + Ing = Working, Run + Ing = Running, Save + Ing = Saving, Cry + Ing = Crying.
Since a gerund is a noun, a gerund can do anything that a noun can do within a sentence like subject of a sentence, the direct object of a sentence, etc.

Gerund और Participle दोनो Non-Finite verb है और Verbal है । Verbal वह शब्द है जो Verb से बनता है परंतु वाक्य में Verb की तरह कार्य नही करता है ।
Gerund एक प्रकार की संज्ञा है जिसे हम वर्ब के साथ 'Ing' जोड़कर बनाते हैं जैसे : Work + Ing = Working, Run + Ing = Running, Save + Ing = Saving, Cry + Ing = Crying
चूंकि Gerund एक noun है, Gerund वह सब कुछ कर सकता है जो एक वाक्य में नाउन कर सकता है जैसे वाक्य का सब्जेक्ट, वाक्य का ड़ाइरेक्ट ऑब्जेक्ट, etc ।

A participle is very different from a gerund. While a gerund acts as a noun, a participle acts as an adjective. The function of an adjective is to describe a noun or a pronoun. Therefore, a Participle always describes a noun or a pronoun in the same sentence.
There are two kinds of Participles - Present Participles and Past Participles. Present Participle is also formed by adding 'Ing' with a verb like: Work + Ing = Working, Run + Ing = Running, Save + Ing = Saving, Cry + Ing = Crying.
Present Participles are often confused with Gerunds because their formation is same i.e. verb + Ing. However, the use of it makes difference. A Gerund is used as Noun whereas a Participle is used to describe about Noun/Pronoun.
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Participle Gerund से बहुत अलग है । जबकि Gerund एक संज्ञा का कार्य करता है, Participle एक Adjective - विशेषण का कार्य करता है । Adjective - विशेषण का कार्य noun या pronoun का वर्णन करना है । इसलिये Participle हमेशा noun या pronoun की उसी वाक्य में विशेषता बताता है 
Participle दो प्रकार के होते हैं - Present Participle और Past Participle । Present Participle को भी Verb के साथ 'Ing' जोड़कर बनाते हैं जैसे: Work + Ing = Working, Run + Ing = Running, Save + Ing = Saving, Cry + Ing = Crying ।
Present Participle अक्सर Gerund से भ्रमित होते हैं क्योंकि उनकी बनावट भी वैसी ही है i ।e । Verb + Ing । लेकिन इसका प्रयोग अंतर पैदा करता है ।  Gerund संज्ञा की तरह प्रयुक्त होता है जबकि Participle संज्ञा/सर्वनाम की विशेषता बताने के लिये प्रयुक्त होता है । 

Examples

I enjoy working with my colleagues. working Gerund acting as noun मैं अपने साथिओं के साथ काम करना पसंद करता हूँ ।
We have good working force in our factory. working Participle describing noun - force हमारे पास अपनी फैक्टरी में अच्छी कार्य शक्ति है ।
Running is a good exercise running Gerund acting as noun दौड़ना एक अच्छा व्यायाम है ।
The award was given to the best running dog. running Participle describing noun - dog सबसे अच्छे दौड़ने वाले कुत्ते को इनाम दिया गया था ।
Saving gives you strength during your rainy days. saving Gerund acting as noun बचत आपके बुरे दिनों में शक्ति देती है ।
Bank has declared new saving schemes. saving Participle describing noun - schemes बैंकने नई बचत योजनांओ की घोषणा की है ।
Crying only may not get you justice. crying Gerund acting as noun केवल चिल्लाना शायद आपको न्याय ना दिला पाये ।
The justice was granted to the crying girl. crying Participle describing noun - girl रोती हुई लड़की को न्याय दिया गया ।

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More Examples

Sentence वाक्य
Having completed her graduation, she wants to become journalist. अपनी graduation पूरी कर चुकने के बाद वह जर्नलिस्ट बनना चाहती है ।
Having finished his homework, Avyan went to play. अपना होमवर्क पूरा करके अव्यन खेलने गया ।
Having worked hard he got tired. कड़ी मेहनत करके वह थक गया ।
Having killed a shark the fisherman dragged it to shore. शार्क को मार कर मछुआरा उसे किनारे तक खींच लाया ।
This is the book written by him. यह पुस्तक है उसके द्वारा लिखी हुई ।
Learn the important questions marked by him. उसके द्वारा मार्क किये गये महत्वपूर्ण प्रश्नों को याद करो ।
This is the accidented bike. यह है दुर्घटनाग्रस्त बाइक ।
I have a broken umbrella. मेरे पास एक टूटी हुई छतरी है ।
Now-a-days girls want a written statement from boys to indemnify their rights. आजकल लड़कियां लड़कों से अपने अधिकारों को सुरक्षित करने के लिये एक लिखित वक्तव्य चाहती हैं ।


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