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Englishkitab >> Essential Grammar >> The-Noun-P3

The Noun

Collective Noun -

Nouns which denote a group of persons, things, places, objects or concepts are Collective Nouns.

Collective Noun – Noun जो व्यक्ति, वस्तु, स्थान, ऑब्जेक्ट या अवधारणा के समूह को व्यक्त करे Collective Noun है ।

Examples of Collective Noun

Collective Noun Collective Noun is a group of...
crowd group of people
mob Collection of people
army group of trained and organised people/soldier
jury group of judges
committee group of officials
family group of family members
audience group of viewers or listeners
flock group of animals
herd group of cattle

Collective Noun can be singular or plural depending on its usage in the sentence. When a Collective Noun is used considering the group as a single unit in a sentence, it is singular e.g. The jury is sitting on the bench. Here Jury is referred as a group. When the Collective Noun is used referring to the individuals of the group, it is plural e.g. The jury are discussing among themselves. Here Jury is referred for judges of the Jury, hence it is plural.

वाक्य में प्रयोग के आधार पर Collective Noun सिंगुलर ओर प्लुरल हो सकते हैं । जब Collecltive Noun वाक्य में ग्रूप को एक इकाई मानकर प्रयुक्त होता है, वह सिंगुलर है जैसे The Jury is sitting on the bench । यहाँ Jury एक समूह को व्यक्त करता है । जब Collective Noun ग्रूप के व्यक्तियों/साथियों का उल्लेख करते हुए प्रयुक्त होता है, वह प्लुरल होता है जैसे The Jury are discussing among themselves । यहाँ Jury ने Jury के जजों को व्यक्त किया है इसलिये यह प्लुरल है ।

Compound Noun

Compound Noun is a combination of two or more words. When we join two or more words and the combination of words act together as a single unit, it is known as Compound Noun. The combination of words could be anything i.e. noun + noun, noun + verb, noun + adjective, verb + noun, or verb + preposotion.

Compound Noun – Compound noun – Compound Noun दो या दो से ज्यादा शब्दों का संयोजन है । जब हम दो या दो से अधिक शब्दों को संयुक्त करते हैं और शब्दों का संयोजन एक सिंगल इकाई की तरह कार्य करता है, वह Compound Noun से जाना जाता है । शब्दों का संयोजन कुछ भी हो सकता है जैसे -noun + noun, noun + verb, noun + adjective, verb + noun, या verb + preposotion ।

There are three forms of Compound Noun :
1. Hyphenated - Cooking-oil, ice-cream
2. Open space - Washing powder, black eye
3. Without space - milkshake, football

Composition of Compound Noun

Noun plus Noun chairman, cowboy
Noun plus Verb bullfight, sidewalk
Noun plus Adjective mouthful, housetop
Adjective plus Noun black board, ponytail
Adjective plus Verb highlight, hardwork
Preposition plus Noun underground, underworld
Preposition plus Verb outlook, overthrow
Verb plus Preposition check-in, lookout
Verb plus Noun breakfast, watchword
Verb + Ing plus Noun washing machine, swimming costume

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Abstract Noun -

Nouns which you cannot perceive with your five senses (see, hear, touch, smell or taste) are called Abstract Nouns. Abstract Noun is intangible and it does not have physical existence. Abstract Noun refers to idea, concept, quality or feeling.

Abstract Noun – Noun जिन्हे तुम अपनी पांच इन्द्रियों से (देखना, सुनना, स्पर्श करना, सूंघना और स्वाद लेना) देख/बूझ नही सकते Abstract Noun कहलाते हैं । Abstract Noun अस्पर्शिय है और इसका भौतिक अस्तित्व नही होता । Abstract Noun विचार, अवधारणा, गुणवत्ता और भावना को व्यक्त करते हैं ।

Concrete Noun

Concrete Noun is the opposite of Abstract Noun. Nouns which you can see, hear, touch, smell or taste are called Concrete Nouns like people, animal, places and object.

Concrete Noun – Abstract Noun से एकदम विपरीत है Concrete Noun । Noun जिन्हें तुम देख, सुन, स्पर्श, सूंघ ओर टेस्ट कर सकते हो Concrete Noun कहलाते हैं जैसे व्यक्ति, जानवर, स्थान और वस्तुएं ।

Abstract Noun vs Concrete Noun

Sentence Description - Concrete Noun / Abstract Noun व्याख्या - Concrete Noun / Abstract Noun
Children were given trophy for their courage. Trophy' is a Concrete Noun as we can see it and 'courage' is an Abstract Noun as it cannot be seen. Trophy Concrete Noun है क्योंकि हम इसे देख सकते है और 'courage' Abstract Noun है क्योंकि इसे देखा नही जा सकता ।
Time is a great healer. Time' is an Abstract Noun as it cannot be perceived with our senses. टाइम' Abstract Noun है क्योंकि इसे अपनी इन्द्रियों से देखा/बूझा नही जा सकता है ।
When Atharva saved the drowning girl, his bravery made him hero. Atharva' and 'drowning girl' are Concrete Noun as we can see them and 'bravery' is an Abstract Noun as it cannot be seen. Atharva' और 'drowning girl' Concrete Noun है क्योंकि हम इन्हें देख सकते हैं और 'bravery' Abstract Noun है क्योंकि इसे हम देख नही सकते हैं

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Examples of Abstract Noun and Concrete Noun

Abstract Noun Abstract Noun Concrete Noun Concrete Noun
anger justice book door
charity knowledge building fire
childhood love bus mountain
creativity loyalty car pen
faith peace chair swimming pool
freedom pleasure computer table
friendship poverty container toothpaste
happiness reality cow train
honesty trust dentist utencil
joy wisdom dog washing machine

Possessive Noun

Possessive Nouns show ownership or possession or a relationship of belonging between two things. Most of Possessive Nouns show possession by an apostrophe ( ' )and the letter 's' or just an apostrophe. Let us take an example - Akshay's car, Minister's peon and Mona Lisa's secrets can become breaking news. Apostrophe with Possessive Noun 'Akshay' (Akshay's) denotes that car is owned by Akshay. Possessive Noun does not always show possession or ownership, it sometimes shows relation or connection between two things like in the example "Minister's peon" and "Mona Lisa's secrets" it shows a relation or connection between them.

Possessive Noun दो वस्तुओं के बीच स्वामित्व, कब्जा या एक सम्बंध दिखाता है । ज्यादातर Possessive Noun possession को apostrophe ( ' ) और अक्षर 's' या केवल apostrophe द्वारा दर्शाते हैं । ऐसे उदाहरण लें - Akshay's car, Minister's peon and Mona Lisa's secrets can become breaking news । Apostrophe के साथ Possessive Noun 'Akshay' (Akshay's) बताता है की कार किसकी है । Possessive Noun हमेशा कब्जा या स्वामित्व नही दर्शाती, यह कभी कभी दो वस्तुओं के बीच का रिश्ता या सम्बंध बताती है जैसा की उदाहरण में "Minister's peon" और "Mona Lisa's secrets" उनके बीच का एक सम्बंध दिखाता है ।


Rule of Apostrophe

Type Rule of Apostrophe Examples
Singular Noun Add an apostrophe + s ( 's ) to most singular nouns.  Avyan's toy, cat's furs, book's page, book's covers
Plural Noun Add an apostrophe + s ( 's ) to plural nouns which does not end in 's'. Children's games, people's views, women's cell, teeth's cleaning
Plural Noun Add only apostrophe ( ' ) to plural nouns which ends in 's'. Babies' soap, girls' parents, companies' officials, dogs' meeting
Compound Noun Add an apostrophe + s ( 's ) to the last word. Commander-in-Chief's orders, sister-in-law's marriage, washing machine's pipe
Two Nouns joined together Add an apostrophe + s ( 's ) to the second word when both noun share the possession of an object. Sonu and Monu's father, Sita and Gita's parlour, Sidhu and Kapil's comedy show
Two Nouns joined together Add an apostrophe + s ( 's ) to both word when ownership is separate. Boy's and girl's dress codes are blue and pink.
Apostrophe is not used with the words. His, hers, yours, mine, ours, its, theirs Hers mobile, yours sincerely, mine opinion, its problems
Apostrophe is used with the words. Everybody, somebody, nobody, anybody, anyone, someone, everyone, none Everybody's support, anybody's contribution, everyone's time is precious.
Double Apostrophe in a sentence should be avoided. e.g. Avyan's friend's birthday was celebrated in the school. - Here double apostrophe is used in the sentence. It should be written : Birthday of Avyan's friend was celebrated in the school.


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