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Englishkitab >> Essential Grammar >> Tenses >> Present Perfect Tense2
Tenses
  1. Present_Indefinite_Tense Page - P2 - P3 - P4
  2. Present_Continuous_Tense Page - P2
  3. Present_Perfect_Tense Page - P2
  4. Present_Perfect_Continuous_Tense Page - P2
  5. Past_Indefinite_Tense Page - P2
  6. Past_Continuous_Tense Page - P2
  7. Past_Perfect_Tense Page - P2
  8. Past_Perfect_Continuous_Tense Page - P2
  9. Future_Indefinite_Tense Page - P2
  10. Future_Continuous_Tense Page - P2
  11. Future_Perfect_Tense Page - P2
  12. Future_Perfect_Continuous_Tense Page - P2
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Present Perfect Tense - Page-2

In Interrogative & Negative sentences, 'Not' is written after Subject but before Verb i.e. Have I not informed you earlier?. However, when we are to write in short form, we can write like this - Haven't I informed you earlier?

Isake Nakaaraatmak aur Prashanvaachak vaakyo meN, 'Not' kaa prayog subject ke baad parantu verb se pahale aataa hai jaise - Has he not gone to school? Jab ham short form meiN likhate hai to is prakaar bhee likh sakate hai - Hasn't he gone to school?.

Characteristic of this tense is that work has already been completed but we feel impact of that in present time or we say something about completed work e.g. He has taken his share.

Is Tense kee visheshataa yah hai kee isame kaarya to poorN ho chukaa hotaa hai lekin us kaarya kaa prabhaav vartamaan meiN mehsoos karate hai yaa usake sambandh meiN kuchh kahate hai - jaise - Vah match jeet chukaa hai (isliye ab vah khush hai).

The exact time when the action happened, is not given in the sentence. If time is given in the sentence, then it will not remain Present Perfect Tense and it will become Past Indefinite Tense e.g. I have taken my meal - Present Perfect Tense. After mentioning time 'at 3pm' if we write 'I have taken my meal at 3pm' is incorrect. When time comes in the sentence it becomes Past Indefinite and it will be written as - I took my meal at 3pm (we shall learn later about Past Indefinite Tense)


Is Tense ke vaakyo meiN kaarya ghaTit hone kaa samay nahee diyaa hotaa hai. Agar vaakya meiN samay diyaa ho, to vah Present Perfect Tense nahee rahataa bulki vah Past Indefinite ban jaataa hai jaise - Maine khaanaa khaa liyaa hai - Present Perfect Tense hai. Isame samay joDane ke baad ' Maine teen baje khaanaa khaa liya hai' - vaakya Past Indefinite ban gayaa (iskay baare meiN aage paDhenge)

Adverbs of Past Time e.g. last night/year/month/week, ago, short while ago, yesterday, day before yesterday does not come in Present Perfect Tense.

Certain indicator words may come in between sentences e.g. "just, yet, so far, upto now, recently, etc" which in appearance looks like past indefinite sentences, but they are present perfect sentences.

In present perfect tense, use of continuous time may also come – means some work started in past and continues upto present like – for few days, for ten days, since Wednesday, since 2011. In such cases, ‘for’ is used for uncertain period and ‘since’ is used for certain period.

Present Perfect Tense is used for an action started in past and still continuing like - Mandeep has worked in our factory for five years. In this example, Mandeep is still working in the factory. If now Mandeep is not working, then correct sentence would be - Mandeep worked in our factory for five years. (means now he is not working in the factory)

In conversation, for past action, normally Present Perfect Tense is used i.e. Where have you been? I have been to Lotus Temple.
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Past Time ke adverb e.g. Pichhalee(pichhale) raat/saal/mahine/saptaah, pahale, kal, parsoN (last night/year/month/week, ago, short while ago, yesterday, day before yesterday) Present Perfect Tense meiN nahee aate hai.

Vaakya meiN kuchh shabd – “abhee, ab tak, tab se, tab tak" kaa prayog hotaa hai. Dekhane meiN past indefinite ke vaakya lagate hai, kintu vah present perfect ke vaakya hote hai jaise – vah abhee tak nahee aayaa hai.

Bhoot Kaal meiN shuru hui kriyaa abhee bhee shuru hai - isako vyakt karane ke liye bhee Present Perfect Tense kaa prayog hotaa hai. Jaise -Mandeep ne hamari factory meiN 5 saal se kaam kiya hai. Isakaa matlab vah abhee bhee kaam kar rahaa hai. Agar vah ab kaam nahee kartaa to Present Perfect Tense kaa prayog nahee hogaa aur vaakya banegaa - Mandeep ne Hamaaree factory meiN 5 saal kaam kiyaa (ab nahee karataa hai).

Present perfect tense ke vaakyo meiN lagaataar samay kaa prayog aa sakataa hai. Yaani koi kaarya bhoot kaal se shuru hokar vartamaan tak hotaa rahe jaise – kuchh dino se, das din se, budhvaar se, 2011 se. Aisey cases meN, ‘for’ kaa prayog anischit samay ke liye kiyaa jaataa hai aur ‘since’ kaa prayog nischit samay ke liye prayog kiyaa jaataa hai.

Kisee past action ke liye baatcheet meiN normally Present Perfect tense istemaal kiyaa jaataa hai - Tum kahaaN gaye thay? MaiN Lotus Temple gayaa thaa. Yah vaakya jab saamane waalaa vyakti abhee hokar hee aayaa thaa tab Present Perfect Tense meiN aayegaa. Agar saamane waalaa vyakti past meiN kuchh ghanTo yaa dino pahale hokar aayaa ho tab Present Perfect Tense kaa prayog nahee hogaa.


Sentence Vaakya
I have just come. MaiN bas abhee aayaa hoon.
Has he not returned your money as yet? Kyaa usane tumhaaraa paisaa abhee tak vaapas nahee kiyaa?
He has not completed the job so far. Usane ab tak kaam pooraa nahee kiyaa hai.
Doctor has not reached hospital as yet. Doctor abhee tak hospital nahee pahunchaa hai.
I have not bathed since Monday. MaiN Somvaar se nahee nahaayaa hoon.
She has not met me for last two months. Vah mujhe do mahine se nahee milee hai.
We have lived in this city for one year. Ham is shahar meiN ek varsh rah chuke hai.
Have you known me since 2006? Kyaa tum mujhe 2006 se jaan gaye ho.
Rohit has not gone to office since Wednesday. Rohit Budhvaar se office nahee gayaa hai.
She has worked in our office for few months. Vah kuchh mahine hamaare office meiN kaam kar chukee hai.
Have I cheated him? Kyaa maine use dhokhaa diyaa hai?
He has not taken all precautions. Usane pooree saavadhaani nahee bartee hai.
Has any judge given death sentence to any rapist? Kyaa kisee judge ne kisee balaatkaaree ko maut kee sajaa sunaai hai?
Children have now disclosed all the old secrets of their childhood. Bachho ne ab apane bachpan ke puraane saare raaj khol diye hai.
She has come to see only me & my wife. Vah kewal mujhe aur meree patnee se milane aai hai.
The king has distributed all his wealth among poor people. Raajaa ne apanaa saaraa dhan garibo meiN baanT diyaa hai.
Has the king now become a poor man? Kyaa ab Raajaa ek gareeb aadamee ban gayaa hai?

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