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Parts of Speech
  1. Sentence
  2. Subject_Predicate
  3. Noun
  4. Pronoun
  5. Verb
  6. Helping_Verb
  7. Adjective
  8. Adverb
  9. Preposition
  10. Preposition List
  11. Conjunction
  12. Interjection

Verb -Kriya

Verb - A verb is a word that tells us what a person, animal or thing is doing. Verbs show action, so they are also called action words. Some verbs do not show action and indicate existence or state of being like appear, seem etc. Every sentence must have a verb.

Kriyaa – Kriyaa vah shabd hai jo yah bataataa hai kee kartaa (vyakti, vastu yaa jaanawar) kyaa kar rahaa hai. – Jaise - Kapil kelaa khaa rahaa hai (khaanaa kriyaa hai jo bataataa hai kee kapil kyaa kar rahaa hai). Hindi meiN verb ke ant meiN ‘naa’ aataa hai Jaise likhanaa, paDhanaa, kudanaa ityaadee. Kuchh kriyaa shabdoN meiN action nahee hotaa apitu kisee 'sthiti' yaa 'honaa' aadi ke baare meiN bataate hai – Jaise mahsoos honaa, astitve honaa aadee.

Examples: write, speak, read, fight, learn, come, go, seem, feel, etc.
He speaks very slow - (action verb – speak)
I learn English daily – (action verb – learn)
She resembles her mother – (state verb – resembles)
It appears that you have lost your ring – (state verb – appears, action verb – lost)

Transitive Verb

A verb which requires an object in a sentence to convey complete meaning is a Transitive Verb. In the absence of object, subject does not convey complete meaning.

Vah kriyaa jise vaakya meiN poore arth ko vyakt karane ke liye object kee jaroorat hotee hai, Transitive verb kahalaatee hai.

Kanika wrote "______".
Without an object the verb “wrote" does not give complete meaning. If we mention object in the sentence –Kanita wrote a letter or her name – makes it more meaningful.

More Examples:
(1)She is eating an apple. (2) He has understood the lesson. (3) He bought a new mobile phone for his mother. (4) He kicked the football. (5) Avyan has completed his homework. (6) Kanika is giving her toys to Vartika.

Intransitive Verb

A verb which does not require an object in a sentence is an Intransitive verb. Intransitive verb can give complete meaning without an object in sentence for it.

Vah kriyaa jise vaakya meiN poore arth ko vyakt karane ke liye object kee jaroorat nahee paDatee, Intransitive verb kahalaatee hai.

Examples: (1) Kanika is not weeping. (2) She is laughing. (3) It has rained. (4) The Sun shines. (5) Birds chirp in the morning. (6) It is burning.

Main Verbs –

Main verbs have major meaning in the sentences i.e. sleep, make, buy, finish, complete etc.

Mukhya Kriyaa - Vaakya ke pramukh arth mukhya verb bataate hain – Jaise – ronaa, banaanaa, kharidnaa, pooraa karanaa, ityaadee.

Helping Verbs –

They support the main verbs to form the structure of sentence as per specific tense i.e. is, am, are, was, were, has, have, had, will, shall etc. Helping verb indicates the tense of the sentence.

Sahaayak KriyaayeN – Yah vaakya kee mukhya kriyaa ko nishchit samay kaal ke anusaar vaakya banaane meiN sahaayak hotee hai.

Sentence Vaakya Main Verb Helping Verb
I am driving a car. MaiN car drive kar rahee hoon. driving am - indicates present tense
She is sleeping. Vah so rahee hai. sleeping Is – indicates present tense.
They were singing a song Ve gaanaa ga rahe thay. singing were - indicates past tense
You will qualify the examination. Tum parikShaa meiN paas ho jaaoge. qualify will - indicates future tense
She has reached her destination Vah apanee manjil par pahunch chukee hai. reached has - indicates present perfect tense


Form of Verbs.

Verb has three forms - (1) Base form - Ist Form (2) Past Simple - 2nd Form (3) Past participle - 3rd Form
For example, Break – broke – broken. “Break" is base form, “broke" is past simple form, and “broken" is past participle form. These three forms may also be named as 1st form, 2nd form and 3rd form of verb.

Verb kee teen form hotee hai. Jaise verb toDanaa kee teen form is prakaar hai - (1) Ist form – Todataa hai (2) 2nd Form – Todaa (3) 3rd Form – Todaa thaa.

Meaning Base form - Ist Form Past simple - 2nd Form Past Participle - 3rd form
aagyaa denaa aagyaa detaa hai aagyaa dee aagyaa dee thee.
aagyaa denaa allow allowed allowed
honaa be was, were been
arambh karanaa begin began begun
toDanaa break broke broken
laanaa bring brought brought
aanaa come came come
swapn dekhanaa dream dreamed/dreamt dreamed/dreamt
peena drink drank drunk
chalanaa drive drove driven
ladanaa fight fought fought
seekhanaa learn learned/learnt learned/learnt
chhoDanaa leave left left
banaanaa make made made
milnaa meet met met
sonaa sleep slept slept
dikhaanaa show showed showed/shown
sikudanaa shrink shrank shrunk
chori karanaa steal stole stolen
ronaa Weep Wept Wept

Please see the list – Form of Verbs

Regular Verbs - Irregular Verbs

On the basis of forming base form of verb to past simple (2nd form) and past participle (3rd form), verb is divided into two type – Regular Verbs and Irregular Verbs.

Regular Verbs : The Verbs which form their past simple and past participle by adding “-ed" to their base form are called regular verbs, for example work – worked - worked, allow – allowed - allowed, play – played – played.

Irregular Verbs : The Verbs which form their past simple and past participle in different ways, for example, steal – stole – stolen, sleep – slept – slept, fight – fought - fought.

Verb ko second form aur third form meiN parivartit karane ke aadhaar par verb ko do bhaago meiN baanTaa jaataa hai - Regular Verb aur Irregular Verb.

Jin verb ke pichhe '-ed' lagaa kar usakee form badalee jaa sakatee hai vah Regular Verb hai aur jin verb kee form alag tareeke se badalee jaatee hai vah Irregular Verb hai.

Modal Verbs

Modal verbs are used to express ability, possibility, intention or necessity. It can be used as helping verb with main verb

Rupaatmak kriyaa - Sambhaavanaa, ichchhaaa, samarthyataa, jaroorat aadi ko vyakt karane meiN istemaal hotee hai. Yah mukhya verb ke saath sahaayak verb ke taur par istemaal ho sakatee hai.

Modals are:
* - Can, could (ability)
* - May, might (possibility)
* - Will, shall, would (intention)
* - Should (necessity -optional)
* - Must (necessity -a bit compulsion)
* - Ought to (should -moral duty)


Sentence Vaakya
I can climb on the hill. MaiN pahaaD par chaDh sakataa hoon. 
He may come at any time. Vah kisee bhee samay aa sakataa hai. 
You must complete your homework by evening. Tumhe shaam tak apanaa homework avashya pooraa karanaa hai. 
You ought to look after your parents. Tumhe apane maataa-pitaa kaa avashya dhyaan rakhanaa chaahiye. 
You should not weep. Tumhe ronaa nahee chaahiye. 

We shall learn in detail about Modals in upcoming Lessons.

Please Click here to learn in detail about The Verb

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