|Parts of Speech|
Subject and Predicate - Kartaa aur Predicate
In making a sentence, we name some person or thing (subject) and say (predicate) something about that person or thing. Hence every sentence has two parts:
1- The part which names the person or thing, is called Subject of the sentence.
2- The part which says about the subject, is called Predicate of the sentence.
Subject normally comes before predicate and in Imperative sentences, subject is left out (e.g. Open the door).
Predicate has main two parts – Verb and Object.
The subject is the person or a thing which performs some action or is associated with the action. A subject has close relationship to what is being discussed in sentence. A subject can be a noun, pronoun, noun clause or noun phrase.
A verb is a word that tells us what a person, animal or thing is doing. Verbs show action, so they are also called action words.
Object is the person or thing which is affected by the action of the verb.
Vaakya banaane ke liye ham kisee vyakti yaa vastu ko lekar usake baare meiN kahate hai. Isliye har vaakya ke do mukhya bhaag hai:
1 Vaakya kaa vah bhaag jo vyakti yaa vastu kaa naam letaa hai, Kartaa kahlaataa hai.
2 Vaakya kaa vah bhaag jo Kartaa ke baare meiN kahataa/vyaakhyaa karataa hai, Predicate kahlaataa hai.
Kartaa sadhaaraNatayaa Predicate se pahale aataa hai. Hindi meiN lagbhag pahalaa shabd Kartaa hotaa hai. Aadeshaatmak vaakyo meiN subject nahee hotaa hai -jaise - Darawaajaa kholo.
Kartaa (Subject) vah vyakti athwaa vastu hai jo kuchh karm karataa hai yaa karm se sambandhit hai. Kartaa kaa gaharaa sambandh vaakya ke Vishaya se hotaa hai. Kartaa sangyaa yaa sarvanaam ho sakataa hai.
Kriyaa vah shabd hai jo yah bataataa hai kee kartaa (vyakti, vastu yaa jaanawar) kyaa kar rahaa hai. – Jaise - Kapil kelaa khaa rahaa hai (khaanaa kriyaa hai jo bataataa hai kee kapil kyaa kar rahaa hai). Hindi meiN verb ke ant meiN ‘naa’ aataa hai Jaise likhanaa, paDhanaa, kudnaa ityaadee.
Object vah vyakti athwaa vastu hai jo kriyaa ke kaarya se prabhaavit hotaa hai. Verb sadhaaraNatayaa object se pahle aataa hai.
Farmers are ploughing the field. - In this sentence, subject is ‘farmer’ who is performing action. Verb is ‘plough + ing’ as it is telling what subject is doing. Object is ‘field’, as it is affected by the action of verb (ploughing).
Kisaan khet jot rahe hai. Is vaakya meiN kartaa ‘kisaan’ hai jo kaarya kar rahaa hai. Kriyaa ‘jotanaa’ hai, jo yah bataataa hai kee kartaa kyaa kar rahaa hai. Object ‘khet’ hai, jo kriyaa ke kaarya ‘jotanaa’ se prabhaavit hai.
|Farmers are ploughing the field.||Farmers||ploughing||field|
|I saw the film.||I||Saw||film|
|King Ashoka praised his soldiers.||King Ashoka||praised||soldiers|
|We are learning English.||We||learning||English|
|Ram speaks English.||Ram||speaks||English|
|Teacher is teaching English to students.||Teacher||teaching||English and Students|
|Rajat is washing his clothes.||Rajat||washing||clothes|
|Kisaan khet jot rahe hai.||Kisaan||Khet jotna||Khet|
|Maine film dekhee||Maine||dekhanaa||film|
|Raajaa Ashoka ne apane sainiko kee taareef kee.||Raajaa Ashoka||tareef karanaa||sainiko|
|Ham English seekh rahe hain.||Ham||seekhanaa||English|
|Ram English bolataa hai.||Ram||bolanaa||English|
|Teacher vidhyaarthioN ko English seekhaa rahaa hai.||Teacher||seekhanaa||English aur vidhyaarthee|
|Rajat apane kapaDe dho rahaa hai.||Rajat||dhonaa||kapaDe|
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