|Parts of Speech|
Pronouns - Pronouns are words that are used in place of nouns. Pronoun means ‘for a noun’.
Sarvanaam – Sangyaa ke sthaan par prayog hone waalaa shabd sarvanaam hai. Sarvanaam kaa matlab ‘sangyaa ke liye’.
Example: Avyan is also a member of the Jury.
So, he is also responsible for the Judgement.
In the first sentence the word ‘Avyan’ is the name of a person. So Avyan is a noun. When we wrote about the same person in the sentence, we used the word ‘He’ in place of Avyan. ‘He’ is a pronoun.
Pahale vaakya meiN Avyan vyakti kaa naam hai. Avyan Sangyaa hai. UdahaaraN meiN jab doosare vaakya meiN Avyan ke baare meiN kahaa gayaa hai, tab Avyan ke liye ‘Vah’ shabd kaa prayog huaa hai. ‘Vah’ sarvanaam hai.
Example: Jaipur is a pink city. It has many tourist places.
In these sentences, Jaipur is a noun. It is a pronoun.
Rules for Pronouns
A pronoun must agree with the noun it represents. If the noun is singular, the pronoun must be singular; if the noun is plural, the pronoun must be plural and if the noun is feminine, the pronoun must be feminine .
Sarvaneem Sangyaa ke anurup hee hona chaahiye. Sangyaa agar singular hai to sarvanaam singular honaa chaahiye, sangyaa agar plural hai to sarvanaam plural honaa chaahiye aur sangyaa agar istriling hai to sarvanaam bhee istriling honaa chaahiye.
A dog was barking. It was black.
Few dogs were not barking at night. They were also black.
Types of Pronouns
There are eight types of Pronouns. Brief description of each type of pronoun is given in the table given below:
Sarvanaam aath prakaar ke hote hai. Sabhee sarvanaam kaa sankShipt vivaraN neeche table meiN diyaa gayaa hai.
|Type||Brief description||SankShipt vivaraN||Pronouns|
|Personal Pronoun||Describes a particular person or thing or group.||Vyakti, vastu ke baare meiN bataataa hai.||I, you, he, she, it, we and they.|
|Possessive Pronoun||Indicates close possession or ownership or relationship of a thing/person to another thing/person.||Vyakti/vastu kaa doosare vyakti/vastu ke beech kaa sambandh bataataa hai.||mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs.|
|Reflexive Pronoun||Describes noun when subject's action turns back upon the subject itself. Reflexive pronouns always act as objects not subjects, and they require an interaction between the subject and an object.||Subject ke khud kaa prabhaav khud par bataataa hai.||himself, yourself, herself, ourselves, themselves, itself.|
|Demonstrative Pronoun||Points out to a person, place, or thing.||Kisee vyakti, vastu, sthaan ko ingit karataa hai.||this, that, these, those.|
|Relative pronoun||Describes a noun which is mentioned before and more information is to be given about it. It joins relative clause and relative sentence. It does double work - the work of a pronoun and also the work of a conjunction.||Vaakya meiN pahale aaye huay noun ke baare meiN bataataa hai or pahale or doosare vaakya ko jodataa hai.||who, whose, which, that, etc..|
|Interrogative Pronoun||Is used to ask a question.||PrashnA poochhataa hai.||who, what, where, which, whose, whom.|
|Indefinite Pronoun||Refer to persons or things in general.||Vastu/sthaan ko sadhaaraNatayaa bataataa hai||One, many, all, some, somebody, someone, few, many, others, nobody, everybody etc|
|Distributive Pronoun||Used to indicate all the members of the representative group.||Group ke sabhee sadasyoN ko ek saath ingit karataa hai.||Each, everyone, either and neither|
|Singular Pronoun||Ekvachan Sarvnaam|
|Person||Personal subject||Personal object||Possessive||Reflexive||Personal||Personal object||Possessive||Reflexive|
|Second||you||you||your||yourself||tum||tumharaa||tumharaa||tumane apane aap|
|Third male||he||him||his||himself||vah||use||usakaa||usane apane aap|
|Third female||she||her||her||herself||vah||use||usakaa||usane apane aap|
|Third neutral||it||it||its||itself||yah||vah||isakaa||isane apane aap|
|Plural Pronoun||Bahuvachan Sarvnaam|
|First||we||us||our||ourselves||ham||ham/ hame||hamaaraa||Hamane apane aap|
|Second||you||you||your||yourselves||tum||tumharaa||tumharaa||tumane apane aap|
|Third male||they||them||their||themselves||vey||unakaa||unake||unhone apane aap|
|Third female||they||them||their||themselves||vey||unakaa||unake||unhone apane aap|
|Third neutral||they||them||their||themselves||vey||unakaa||unake||unhone apane aap|
|I am young||MaiN jawaan hoon.||I|
|This is my book.||Yah meree pustak hai.||this, my|
|This book is mine.||Yah pustak meree hai.||this, mine|
|The idea of my wife was excellent.||Meree patnee kaa sujhaav baDhiyaa thaa.||my|
|He loves his dog and it also loves him.||Vah apane kutte ko pyaar karataa hai aur vah (kutta) bhee use pyaar karataa hai.||he, his, it, him|
|It was I who started the dance.||Yah maiN thaa jisane dance kee shuruvaat kee thee.||it, I|
|It is winter. It is very cold.||Sardi hai. Bahut ThanD hai.||it, it|
|I met Vartika who had just returned from USA.||MaiN Vartika se milaa jo abhee USA se vaapas aaiee hai.||I, who|
|Each of the participants, got prize.||Har ek bhaagalene waalo ko inaam milaa.||each|
|Either of you can go to office.||Tum meiN se koi ek office jaa sakataa hai.||Either, you|
|I have lost the pen that my teacher gave me||Maine vah pen kho diyaa jo mere teacher ne mujhe diyaa thaa.||I, that, my, me|
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