|Parts of Speech|
Helping (Auxiliary) Verbs Sahaayak Kriya
Helping (Auxiliary) Verbs are of two types:
1. Primary Helping (Auxiliary) Verbs
Primary Helping (Auxiliary) Verbs
Primary Auxiliary verbs (also known as Helping Verbs) are verbs that are used together with the main verb of the sentence to express
the action or state. They support the main verbs to form the structure of sentence as per specific tense. Primary Auxiliary Verbs are of three types:
1. Verbs 'TO BE' - Is, are, am, was, were
2. Verbs 'TO HAVE' - Has, have, had
3. Verbs 'TO DO' - Do, does, did
Sahaayak kriyaa vah kriyaa hai jo vaakya meiN mukhya verb ke saath kriyaa yaa sthiti ko darshaane meiN prayukt hotee hai. Yah mukhya verb ko pratyek tense ke anusaar vaakya banaane meiN sahaayak hotee hai. Sahaayak kriyaa mukhyatah uprilikhit teen prakaar kee hotee hai.
The verb "TO BE" is used as - Is / are / am / was / were. It’s simple meaning is "to be" or be something. As helping or auxiliary verbs, it is used in tenses, active-passive and
direct-indirect about which we will learn in detail later. Here we will learn about its other usages in a sentence.
Simple meaning of verb " TO HAVE" denotes "possession". "Have" is used as - Has / have / had. As helping or auxiliary verbs, it is also used in tenses, active-passive and direct-indirect about which we will learn in detail later. Here we will learn about its simple meaning "Possession".
Simple meaning of verb "TO DO" is used as - Do / does / did. It's simple meaning is "to perform an action" and vastly used in tenses, active-passive and direct-indirect about which we will learn in detail later. Here we will learn about its other usages in sentence.
"TO BE" kriyaa kaa in shabdoN dwaaraa English meiN prayog hotaa hai -is/are/am/was/were.
Isakaa Hindi meiN arth hotaa hai "HONA" aur Hindi meiN isake roop hai -hai/hoon/thaa/hogaa. Inahee artho meiN isake
roop hai - Rahataa hai / hotaa hai / Huaa hai. Yah tense, active-passive aur direct-indirect meiN bhee prayukt hotee hai jinake baare meiN aage vistaar se jaanenge.
YahaaN ham inake doosare prayogo ke baare meiN jaanenge.
"TO HAVE" kaa Hindi meiN prachlit arth hai "paas honaa / kabje meN". Paas honaa vyakt karane ke liye har baar 'paas' shabd ka prayog jarooree nahee hai jaise - 'Mere paas jaankaaree hai' ko 'Mujhe jaankaaree hai' bhee kah sakate hai. Yah tense, active-passive aur direct-indirect meN bhi prayukt hotee hai jinake baare meiN aage vistaar se jaanenge. YahaaN ham inake arth "paas hona" ke baare meiN jaanenge.
"TO DO" (Do / Does / Did) kaa simple arth hai 'Kaarya Karnaa' aur baDe roop meiN isakaa istemaal tenses, active-passive aur direct-indirect meiN hotaa hai. YahaaN ham isake alag prayog ke baare meiN jaanenge.
|MaiN khush hoon.||I am happy.|
|Sachin ghar par hai.||Sachin is at home.|
|Mahika baDee mohak laDakee hai.||Mahika is a very charming girl.|
|Ham sab vidhyarthee hai.||We all are student.|
|Anu kal anupasthit thee.||Anu was absent yesterday.|
|Tum mere padosee thay.||You were my neighbour.|
|Tum hameshaa khush ho.||You are always happy.|
|India meiN sab log kharaab nahee hai.||All people are not bad in India.|
|Aise avsar durlabh hai.||Such occasions are rare.|
|Meraa peTbharaa huaa hai.||My stomach is full.|
|Mere paanch dost hai.||I have five friends|
|Vartika ke baal lambe hai.||Vartika has long hair.|
|Use kuchh bhee anubhav nahee hai.||He has no experience.|
|Aap ek cup chaay jaroor le.||Do have a cup of tea.|
Use of Helping Verbs
We have seen above examples of Helping Verb. Now we are to learn about:
1. What is Ist person, 2nd person, 3rd person?
2. Which helping verb is used with 1st/2nd/3rd person?
3. What are sentence forming Rules of it?
Upar hamane sahaayak kriyaa ke kuchh udaaharaN paDhe. Ab hame inake baare meiN seekhanaa hai:
1. Pahalaa vyakti, doosaraa vyakti, teesaraa vyakti kyaa hai?
2. Kis vyakti ke saath kaun see sahaayak kriyaa istemaal honee hai?
3. Vaakya banaane ke niyam kyaa hai?
We give below a table to understand above stated point number 1 & 2.
|Person||Subject||Helping Verb of Present Tense||Helping Verb of Past Tense|
|Ist person||I||am, have||was, had|
|2nd Person||You||are, have||were, had|
|3rd Person-Singular||He/She/It/Ram||is, has||was, had|
|3rd Person-Plural||We/They/boys||are, have||were, had|
Sentence Forming Rules
Subject, Verb and Object play a major roll in forming any sentence. In small sentences 'Object' is missing (He plays.). in some sentences 'Subject' remains silent (Go to school.) and in one-word
sentences, only 'Verb' remains in the sentence (Stop., Sit-down.).
Sequence of positive sentence = Subject + Helping Verb + Main Verb (if need be) + Object.
In negative sentence 'Not' is added after Helping Verb and before Main Verb(if any) or Object. In Interrogative sentence, only position of 'Helping Verb' is changed and placed in the beginning. In interrogative and negative sentences, 'Not' is added after Subject and before Main Verb (if any) or Object. The Rule of making sentences of Helping Verb is given below:
English vaakya meiN subject, verb aur object kee mukhya bhumikaa hotee hai. Chhote vaakyo meiN 'Object' nahee hotaa (vah khelataa hai), kuchh vaakyo meiN 'Subject' chhipaa hotaa hai (school jaao) aur
ek-shabd waale vaakyo meiN kewal 'Verb' hotaa hai (Ruko, BaiTh Jaao).
Normal vaakyo kaa kram = Subject + Helping Verb + Main Verb (yadi jaroorat hai) + Object.
Vaakya ko negative banaane ke liye 'Helping Verb' ke baad aur Main Verb yaa Object se pahale 'Not' lagaate hai. Prashanvaachak vaakyo meN, kewal Helping Verb kee position ko badal kar vaakya ke shuru meiN lagaate hai. Prashnavaachak aur negative vakayo meiN 'Subject' ke baad aur Main Verb yaa Object se pahale 'Not' lagaate hai. Helping Verb ke vakyo ko banaane kaa Rule neeche diyaa hai.
|Rule - Helping Verbs - is/am/are/was/were/has/have/had/will/shall|
|Type of Sentence||Rule|
|Positive||Subject + Helping Verb + object (.)|
|Negative||Subject + Helping Verb + not + object (.)|
|Interrogative||Helping Verb + Subject + object (?)|
|Interrogative-Negative||Helping Verb + Subject + Not + object (?)|
|Angrejee ek aasaan bhaaShaa hai.||English is an easy language.|
|English ek aasaan bhaaShaa nahee hai.||English is not an easy language.|
|Kyaa English ek aasaan bhaaShaa hai?||Is English an easy language?|
|MaiN tumhaaraa dost hoon.||I am your friend.|
|MaiN tumhaaraa dost nahee hoon.||I am not your friend.|
|Kyaa maiN tumhaaraa dost hoon?||Am I your friend?|
|Vah beemaar hai.||She is ill.|
|Vah beemaar nahee hai.||She is not ill.|
|Kyaa vah beemaar hai?||Is she ill?|
|Ve bhookhe hai.||They are hungry.|
|Ve bhookhe nahee hai.||They are not hungry.|
|Vah hamaaraa kirayedaar thaa.||He was our tenant.|
|Vah hamaaraa kirayedaar nahee thaa.||He was not our tenant.|
|Kyaa vah hamaaraa kirayedaar nahee thaa?||Was he our tenant?|
|MaiN imaandaar thaa.||I was honest.|
|MaiN imaandaar nahee thaa.||I was not honest.|
|Kyaa maiN imaandaar thaa?||Was I honest?|
|Kyaa maiN ek imaandaar karamachaaree nahee thaa?||Was I not an honest worker?|
|Raastaa pattharo aur gaDDho se bharaa thaa.||The road was full of stones and holes.|
|Vah darjee hai.||He is a tailor.|
|Yah ek apraadhee hai.||This is a crime.|
|Pichhale saal phasal bahut achchhee thee.||The crops were very good last year.|
|Parso Shukravaar thaa.||The day before yesterday was Friday.|
|Sair karanaa achchhee aadat hai.||Walking is a good habit.|
|Vah bharose kaa aadamee nahee hai.||He is not a reliable person.|
|Vah apane kamare meiN nahee thee.||She was not in her room.|
|Vah moorkh laDakee hai.||She is an idiot girl.|
|Yah tumhaaraa mahatvapoorN kaarya hai.||This is your important work.|
|Kelaa sehat ke liye achchhaa hotaa hai.||Banana is good for health.|
|Kyaa vah bhookhaa hai?||Is he hungry?|
|Tumhaaraa beTaa bhookhaa aur pyaasaa hogaa.||Your son will be hungry and thirsty.|
|Kyaa Ve bhookhe nahee hai?||Are they not hungry?|
|VahaaN bahut bandar hai.||There are many monkeys.|
|Yah paDhanaa bahut mushkil hai.||It is very difficult to read.|
|Poonam ko Somvaar ko aanaa hai.||Poonam is to come on Monday.|
|Mujhe aap par pooraa vishwaas hai.||I have full faith in you.|
|Mere paas chhataree nahee hai.||I have no umbrella.|
|Kyaa aapake paas sau rupaye kaa note hai?||Have you a hundred rupee note?|
|Renu ke haath meiN bahut dard thaa.||Renu had severe pain in her hand.|
|Kyaa us (stree) ke ghungaraale baal hai?||Has she curly hair?|
|Aaaj hame bhookh nahee hai||We have no appetite today.|
|Kyaa tumhe kal chhuTTee hai?||Have you a holiday tomorrow?|
|Vartika ke paas bahut khilone hai.||Vartika has many toys.|
|Kyaa us (stree) kaa apane pati se koi lenaa denaa nahee thaa?||Had she not any dealing with her husband?|
|Mujhe apanee patnee se sachchaa pyaar hai.||I have true love for my wife.|
|Sher ke paas majboot panjaa hai.||Lion has a strong paw.|
|Kyaa usake paas ek bhee paisaa nahee thaa?||Had she not a single penny?|
|Meraa tum par vishwaas hai.||I have confidence in you.|
|Vartika ke chehare par hansee thee.||Vartika had a smile on her face.|
|Mere paas samay nahee hai.||I have no time.|
|Mere paas ek sashakt saboot hai.||I have a solid proof.|
|Vah usase milataa to hai (jaroor milataa hai).||He does meet her.|
|Usane kal gaanaa gaayaa to thaa (pakkaa gayaa thaa).||She did sing yesterday.|
Another type of Auxiliary Verbs (will, shall, may, can, may, would, should, could, might, must, ought, dare, need, used to) are known as
Modal Verbs. We will learn about Modals in upcoming lessons.
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