Use of It and There
When a sentence has no subject, then 'It and There' are used as an Introductory Word. e.g. It is a goat. There is no way. In these examples, Subject is missing and 'It' and 'There' are used
as introductory words.
Aamtaur par 'It' kaa arth 'Yah' aur 'There' kaa arth 'VahaaN' hotaa hai parantu 'It aur There' kaa prayog Subject ke naa hone par Parichaya Shabd (Introductory Word) ke roop meiN kiya
jaataa hai. Jaise - Yah bakaree hai. VahaaN koi raasta nahee hai. In udaaharaNo meiN Kartaa nahee hai atah 'It' aur 'There' kaa prayog Parichaya Shabd ke roop meiN huaa hai.
Use of It
'It' is a third-person, singular neuter pronoun. 'It' can be used for either a Subject or an Object in a sentence. Its Personal, Possessive and Reflexive form is given below:
|Singular Pronoun||Ekvachan Sarvnaam|
|Person||Personal subject||Personal object||Possessive||Reflexive||Personal||Personal object||Possessive||Reflexive|
|Third neutral||it||it||its||itself||yah||vah||isakaa||isane apane aap|
|Plural Pronoun||Bahuvachan Sarvnaam|
|Third neutral||they||them||their||themselves||ve||unakaa||unake||unhone apane aap|
In the absence of subject, 'It' is used as an introductory word. One is to apprise only time say 'seven o'clock'. Subject is not there and in the absence of Subject sentence
'seven o'clock' does not sound good. Here 'It' is used as an introductory word and sentence will be - It is seven o'clock.
Subject kee anupasthiti meiN parichaya karaane waale shabd ke roop meiN 'It' kaa prayog hotaa hai - jaise - saat baje hai. Subject ke binaa anuvaad hogaa 'Seven O'clock' jo ki
uchit nahee jaan paDataa hai atah aise vaakyo meiN 'It' kee sahaayataa lee jaatee hai aur anuvaad hogaa 'It is seven o'clock'.
'It' is used to talk about time, date, weather.
'It' kaa prayog Samay, tareekh aur mausam ke liye kiyaa jaataa hai
|Teen baje hai.||It is three o'clock.|
|SaaDe chaar baje thay.||It was half past four.|
|Savaa ek bajaa hai.||It is quarter past one.|
|Meree ghaDee meiN paune chaar baje hai.||It is a quarter to four by my watch.|
|Kyaa tumhaaraa janam din hai?||Is is your birthday?|
|11 November thaa.||It was 11th November.|
|Barsaat ho rahee hai.||It is raining.|
|ThanDee hawaa chal rahee hai.||It is blowing cold.|
|London meiN roj bundaa baandee hotee hai.||It drizzles daily in London.|
|Yah leak kar rahaa hai.||It is leaking.|
|Vah andheree raat thee.||It was a dark night.|
|Kyaa aaj mausam achchhaa nahee hai?||Is it not fine today?|
'It' is used to talk about people- ourselves as well as others.
'It' kaa prayog logo (apane aur doosaro) ke baare meiN baat karane ke liye kiyaa jaataa hai
|Telephone par:- MaiN hoon.||On the telephone:- It's me.|
|Telephone par:- Avyan hoon.||On the telephone:- It's Avyan.|
|Jab log dekh naa sake:- MaiN hoon, tumhaaraa paDosee.||When people cannot see:- It's me, your neighbour.|
|Telphone uThaane par:- Hello, kaun hai?||On picking phone:- Hello, who is it?|
|Darawaajaa khat khat kee aawaaj sunane par:- Kaun hai?||On hearing door knocking sound :- Who is it?|
'It' is used when Gender (sex) is not known. 'It' is referred for a baby of human also when sex of the baby is not known. (God has blessed him with a baby. It is 'he' or 'she'? Animals, Birds, Ants,
Insects, etc and lifeless things - visible/invisible (Book, Tree, Stone, Statue, mooD, daanT-jhidki etc) are also referred by 'It'.
Jab hame Gender (Ling) kaa gyaan naa ho to ham 'It' kaa prayog karate hai. Manushya ke bachche kaa bhee agar sex maaloom naa ho to 'It' se sambodhit kiyaa jaataa hai (Usako Bhagwaan ne bachchaa diyaa hai.
Vah laDakaa hai yaa laDakee?) Jaanawar, PakShee, CheenTee, KeeDe aadi evam bejaan vastu -pratyakSh/apratyakSh (Kitab, PeDD, Patthar, Moortee, daanT, mooD, aadee) ko 'It' se hee sambodhit
kiyaa jaataa hai.
|Yah saanp hai.||It is a snake.|
|Yah billee hai.||It is a cat.|
|Yah meree pustak hai.||It is my book.|
|Kyaa yah aam kaa peDD hai?||Is it a mango tree?|
|Yah ajaadi kee moortee hai.||It is the statue of Liberty.|
|Jab usane bachche ko dekhaa, vah so rahaa thaa (It kaa prayog jab male/female meiN antar naa karanaa ho)||When he saw the child, it was seeping. (Use of It when you are not to differentiate between male or female)|
|Avyan ne apanee dress kharaab kar dee hai.||Avyan has spoiled his dress.|
|Vah patthar thaa. Isane us laDake ko choTil kiyaa.||It was a stone. It injured that boy.|
|Pitaajee ne mujhe jhiDakee lagaai. Isane meraa mood kharaab kar diyaa. (Isane yahaaN 'jhiDakee' ke liye prayukt huaa hai)||Papa rebuked me. It spoiled my mood. (Here 'It' is used for 'Rebuke')|
|Meraa bahut achchhaa mooD thaa. Yah mere pote kee vajah se thaa. ('Yah' yahaaN 'mooD' ke liye prayukt huaa hai)||My mood was very good. It was because of my grandson. (Here 'It' is used for 'mood')|
|BaDhate bachcho kee jyaadaa dekhabhaal mat karo. Yah use bigaaD degee.||Don't take much care of your growing son. It will spoil him.(Here 'It' is used for 'much care')|
'It' is used to refer to a Noun which has come before. The Noun can come before in the same sentence or in the same paragraph(s).
'It' kaa prayog pahale aaye huay Noun (Sangyaa) ke liye kiyaa jaataa hai. Noun usee vaakya meiN yaa usee paragraph meiN pahale aa sakataa hai.
|Surya udayA ho gayaa hai. Yah sabako roshni detaa hai.||The sun has risen. It gives light to everybody.|
|Chaand shaant rahane kee preraNaa detaa hai. Yah pyaar kaa bhee prateek hai.||The moon inspires to be calm. It is a symbol of love also.|
|Yah pustak bahut ruchikar hai. Yah bahut keematee hai.||This book is very interesting. It is very costly.|
|Statue of Liberty Liberty Island meiN sthit hai. Isakee lambaai 46 meter hai. Isakaa nirmaaN 1870 may huaa thaa. (YahaaN Noun ke liye baad meiN har baar 'It' kaa prayog huaa hai)||Statue of Liberty is located on Liberty Island. Its height is 46 meter. It was erected in 1870.(Here 'It' is used for Noun every time after in the sentences).|
|Nal bah rahaa hai. Isakee marramat karanee paDegee.||Tap is running. It will have to be repaired.|
|Car parking meiN khaDee hai. Yah surakShit hai.||Car is standing in the parking. It is safe.|
'It' is used to refer to a Clause which has come before.
'It' kaa prayog pahale aaye huay vaakya ke ek bhaag ke liye kiyaa jaataa hai
|Maine usako padonnat kiyaa hai aur usako yah pataa hai.|| I have promoted him, and he is aware of it.|
|Usane apanaa cheharaa dikhaayaa thaa. Yah usakee yojanaabaddh kaaryavaahee thee.||He had shown his face. It was his planned action.|
|Pichhale mahine se vah lagaataar aa rahaa hai. Yah isliye kyonki vah transfer chaahataa hai.||He has been visiting daily for the last month. It is because, he wants transfer.|
|Rajan ne Smita ke liye apanaa jivan kurbaan kar diyaa hai. Isakaa Harbhajan ko nahee pataa hai.||Rajan has sacrificed his life for Smita. It is not known to Harbhajan.|
|Manjula ne saaraa kaam kar liyaa thaa. Yah meree jaankaaree meiN thaa.||Manjula had completed whole work. It was in my knowledge.|
|Kitanee khoobasoorat gauraiyaa hai yah!|| What a beautiful sparrow it is!.|
'It' is used to refer to a Phrase or Clause coming after.
'It' kaa prayog baad meiN aane waale vaakya ke bhaag yaa vaakyaansh ke liye kiyaa jaataa hai
|Isakee sambhaavanaa hai kee vah aa sakataa hai.||It is possible that he may come.|
|Mushkil thaa usakee yojanaa kaa purvaanumaan karanaa.||It was difficult to anticipate his plans.|
|Dukh hai usake accident ke baare meiN jaankar.||It is sad to know about his accident.|
|BaDhiyaa (laayak/uchit ) hai vahaaN jaanaa aur show ko dekhanaa.||It is worth to go there and see the show.|
|Aadhaa ghanTaa lagegaa vahaaN jaane meN.||It will take half an hour to reach there.|
|Ruchikar thaa aakhir meiN tumhaare bhai se milanaa.||It was interesting to meet your brother at last.|
|Bahut bekaar hai vyast ghanTo meiN driving.||It is awful driving in peak hours.|
|Bahut baDhiyaa hai London meiN 4D movie dekhanaa.||It is great watching 4D movie in London.|
'It' is also used to emphasise Noun or Pronoun.
'It' kaa prayog kisee cheej (Noun aur Pronoun) ko mahatva dene ke liye bhee kiyaa jaataa hai.
|Yah maiN thaa jisane tumhe usake result ke baare meiN bataayaa.||It was I, who told you about his result.|
|Yah tumahee ho jisane mujhe chup rahane ko kahaa hai.||It is you, who has asked me to keep quiet.|
|Yah vo sthaan hai jahaaN par ham pahalee baar mile thay.||It is the place, where we had met for the first time.|
|Yah vo vyakti hai jisane tumhe apanaa khoon daan kiyaa thaa.||It is he, who had donated his blood to you.|
|Yah vo hospital hai jahaaN tum paidaa huay thay.||It is the hospital, where you were born.|
|Yah vah season hai jab tum aam kaa aanand le sakate ho.||It is the season, when you can enjoy mango.|
|Yahee kewal ek website hai jahaaN English seekhanaa itanaa aasaan hai.||It is the only one website, where English learning is so easy.|
|Tumahee ho jisane apanaa vaayadaa nibhaanaa hai.||It is you, who is to keep your commitment.|
|Yah maiN thaa jo tumhe bachaane nadee meiN kood gayaa thaa.||It was I, who jumped into the river to save you.|
|VahaaN mere kamare mein ek computer hai.||It was his good karmas only, which saved him.|
Use of There
The word 'There' has a variety of uses. It usually signifies 'in that place / that location'. It is also used as first word (introductory word) in a sentence where it has merely an introductory value and three is no
signification of its usual meaning of place.
Shabd 'There' kai prakaar se istemaal hotaa hai. Isakaa aamtaur par arth hai 'Vah sthaan'. Yah parichaya shabd ke roop meiN bhee istemaal hotaa hai jahaaN isakaa arth parichaya se hee sambandhit hotaa hai aur usake aamtaur
walay arth 'vaha sthan' se koi lenaa denaa nahee hotaa.
'There' is used as introductory word when the verb is intransitive and it is followed by the subject of the sentence. (Intransitive verb is a verb
which does not require an object in sentence. Intransitive verb can give complete meaning without an object in sentence for it).
'There' parichaya shabd ke roop meiN istemaal hotaa hai jab Kriyaa intransitive ho aur vaakya kaa subject isake baad aaye. (Intransitive Kriyaa vah
hai jisako vaakya meiN Object kee jaroorat nahee hotee hai. Intransitive Kriya, Object ke binaa pooraa arth bataa sakatee hai)
We use 'There' as a dummy subject with Verb (TO BE form - Is / Are / Was / Were / Will be/ etc) followed by a Noun phrase / clause.
Ham 'There' kaa prayog ek dummy Subject ke taur par sahaayak kriyaa ke saath aur Sangyaa vaakyaansh/clause se pahale parichayA shabd ke roop meiN karate hai.
|Word - There|
|Type of Sentence||Rule|
|Positive||There + To be Form of Verb (Is / Are / Was / Were / Will be/ been/ etc) + ......|
'There' as a pronoun, is used to introduce a noun or phrase or to talk about things we can see and things that exists.
'There' Sarvanaam ke taur par isakaa istemaal, Noun yaa vaakyaansh yaa ve vastuveN jinhe ham dekh sakate hai yaa jinakaa astitva hai, kaa parichaya karane meiN hotaa hai.
|VahaaN mere kamare mein ek computer hai.||There is a computer in my room.|
|Car meiN chaar log thay.||There were four persons in that car.|
|Kewal 15 vidyaarthee cinema hall meiN thay.||There were only 15 students in the cinema hall.|
|Kai log is elevator meiN hai.||There are too many people in this elevator.|
|Dopahar meiN meeting hai. Yah petrol keemat meiN vriddhee par kendrit karegee.||There is a meeting in the afternoon. It will focus on increase in petrol prices.|
|Har student ke liye ek computer hogaa.||There will be a computer for each student.|
|Subah khoob barsaat hui thee.||There was a lot of rain in the morning.|
|SainkaDo prakaar ke phool park meiN hai.||There are hundred types of flowers in the garden.|
|Kam se kam 20 guard raat ko society meiN jaroor hone chaahiye.||There must be minimum 20 guards at night in the society.|
|Ghar par koi nahee hogaa.||There will be none at home.|
|Shaadee se pahale karane ko bahut kaam hai.||There is a lot of work to do before marriage.|
|Kai kaaraN hai usako promotion naa dene ke.||There are number of reasons for not granting him promotion.|
|Kuchh hee virodhee hai.||There are only a few opponents.|
|Kalpvriksh Jaipur meiN hai.||There is a Kalpvriksh in Jaipur.|
|London meiN kai mandir hai.||There are number of temples in London.|
|Prashant kee Reception meiN 300 se jyaadaa log thay.||There were more than three hundred people in Prashant's wedding reception.|
|30 log se jyaadaa use baDhaai dene ke liye line meiN khaDe thay.||There were more than 30 people standing in queue to congratulate him.|
|Kai log hai jo Sarkaar kee yojanaao kaa samarthan karate hai.||There are many people who support the Government's policies.|
|Yadi koi vyakti laal batti ko paar karataa hai, kripayaa use chetaavanee de.||If there is a person who tries to cross the red traffic light, please warn him.|
'There' as an adverb, is normally used to signify its usual meaning 'in that place / that location'
'There' adverb ke taur par sadhaaraNtah isakaa prayog isake aamtuar par arth 'vaha sthan' meiN hotaa hai.
|Kyaa tum vahaaN kutte ke bhonkane kee aawaaj sun rahe ho?||Do you hear that dog-barking over there?|
|Kyaa maiN vahaaN baiTh sakataa hoon?||May I please sit there?|
|Coach chillaayaa, "vaheeN baahar ruko!"||The coach shouted, "Stay outside there!"|
|Office meN, usakaa cabin vahaaN kone meiN thaa.||In the office, his cabin was there in the corner.|
|Nadee kinaare, vah vahaaN baiThaa karataa thaa.||On the bank of river, he used to sit there.|
|Yadi tum dhumrapaan karanaa chaahate ho, vahaaN jaao.||If you want to smoke, go there.|
Sentences of helping verb 'Has/Have/Had', which denotes possession, can also be written by using 'There':
'Has/Have/Had' waale vaakyo ko ham 'There' se bhee anuvaad kar sakate hai
|Ek saptaah meiN saat din hai.- Saat din hai ek saptaah meN.||A week has seven days. - There are seven days in a week.|
|Mere paas do car hai. - Do car hai mere paas.||I have two cars. - There are two cars with me.|
|Vartika ke paas ek tipahiyaa cycle hai. - Ek tipahiyaa cycle hai Vartika ke paas.||Vartika has one tricycle. - There is one tricycle with Vartika.|
|Avyan kee jeb meiN kuchh nahee hai. - Kuchh nahee hai Avyan kee jeb meN.||Avyan has nothing in his pocket. - There is nothing in Avyan's pocket.|
|Unake paas kai khilone hai. - Kai khilone hai unake paas.||They have many number of toys. - There are many toys with them.|
Other Usage of There
|Ham yahaaN jaroor aaraam karenge aur vahaaN nahee.||We must rest here and not there.|
|Mere beTe ne note kiyaa kee chiDiyaaghar meiN do safed tiger thay.||My son noted that there were two white tigers in the zoo.|
|Ham vahaaN se road ke aakhir tak chale, phir kuchh pal ke liye baiThe.||We walked from there to the end of the road, then we sat for a while.|
|Office meiN kuchh log hai (sahee ginatee nahee maaloom)||There are some people in the office (don't know exact quantity)|
|Fridge meiN thoDaa doodh hai (sahee matraa nahee maaloom)||There is some milk in the fridge. (don't know exact quantity)|
|Kuchh chillar hai mere paas (sahee ginatee nahee maaloom)||There is some change with me. (don't know exact quantity)|
|Koi paisaa nahee hai mere purse meN.||There is not any money in my purse. (uncountable noun)|
|Koi laDakee aaj class meiN nahee hai. (negative plural meiN 'any' kaa prayog hotaa hai)||There are not any girls in the classroom today. (plural noun)|
|Ek bhee shaadee shudaa laDakee class meiN nahee hai.('Any' singular countable noun ke saath nahee aataa hai)||There is not a single married girl in the class. (singular countable noun - Any is not used for singular countable noun)|
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