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ELC-4th Day - Page-2

4th Day - We shall learn about Tenses and Present Indefinite Tense. It is the most important part of learning English. It is appropriate to say that it is not possible to learn English without knowledge of Tenses.
Knowledge of 1st and 2nd day's topics and Helping Verb has laid down the foundation for learning Tenses easily.

Present Indefinite Tense - Positive

Present Indefinite Tense
Type of Sentence Rule
Positive Subject + Verb (Ist form) + s/es + Object + (.)

In present indefinite tense, if the subject is third person singular, ‘s’ or ‘es’ is added with first form of verb.

प्रेज़न्ट इन्डेफिनेट टेन्स में वर्ब के साथ ''s' या 'es' का प्रयोग तभी करते हैं जब वाक्य का सब्जेक्ट थर्ड पर्सन सिंगुलर हो ।

What is First person, Second person and Third person.
First person I and We Speaking person
Second person you Person to whom spoken
Third person he, she, it, they,Ram Person(s) about whom/which spoken. (Everyone except I, we & you).
पहला व्यक्ति मैं और हम बोलने वाला व्यक्ति
दूसरा व्यक्ति तुम जिस व्यक्ति को कहा जाता है
तीसरा व्यक्ति वह, वे, राम व्यक्ति / वस्तु जिसके बारे में कहा जाता है (मैं, हम और तुम - 'I, we, you' को छोड़ कर दुनिया की बाकि सब चीजें)


He studies in college / I study in school. - Subject 'He' is third person singular, hence 's/es' is added with the verb and 'I' is first person hence 's/es' is not added with the verb.

Dog barks / Dogs bark - Here 's/es' is added when subject is third person singular and 's/es' is not added when subject becomes third person plural.

He studies in college / I study in school. - कर्ता 'He' तीसरा व्यक्ति (एकवचन) है इसलिए 's/es' को वर्ब के साथ जोड़ा गया है और कर्ता 'I' पहला व्यक्ति है इसलिए 's/es' वर्ब के साथ नही जोड़ा गया है ।

Dog barks / Dogs bark - कर्ता 'Dog' तीसरा व्यक्ति (एकवचन) है इसलिए 's/es' को वर्ब के साथ जोड़ा गया है और जब कर्ता तीसरा व्यक्ति ही है परंतु बहुवचन हो जाता है तब वर्ब के साथ 's/es' नही जोड़ा जाता ।

Present Indefinite Tense - Positive मैं रविवार को चर्च जाता हूँ ।
Person Subject Observe addition of 's' or 'es' with verb
Ist Person -Singular I Go to Church on Sunday.
Ist Person -Plural We Go to Church on Sunday.
2nd Person You Go to Church on Sunday.
3rd Person -Singular He/She/It/Ram/Seema Goes to Church on Sunday.
3rd Person -Plural They/boys Go to Church on Sunday.

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General rule of adding ‘s’ or ‘es’ with verb

"es" is added with verb which ends with letter" " Examples
"O" Go-goes, Do-does,
"CH" Teach-teaches, Fetch-fetches
"SS" Miss-misses, Kiss-kisses
"SH" Finish-finishes, Wash-washes
"X" Box-boxes, fax-faxes
When last letter of verb is 'y' and second last letter is a consonant, then for adding 's' with the verb, the letter 'y' is replaced with 'ies' jaise - study-studies, cry-cries, try-tries. When last letter of verb is 'y' and second last letter is a vowel, then we just add 's' after 'y' jaise - obey-obeys, play-plays, day-days.
In almost other cases, "s" is added with the verb.

A sentence must have a verb. When another verb comes in the sentence, 'To' is used before another verb(s) (other than main verb). e.g. He goes to park to see Anita. Here main verb is 'go' which is used as per rule of the tense and another verb is 'see' hence 'to' is used before verb 'see'.
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When 'Come or Go' is used before name of places in a sentence, 'To' is used after 'Come/Go' 'To' is not used before the words - 'Home / Abroad / Here / There'

वाक्य का लगभग पहला शब्द सब्जेक्ट होता है । जिस शब्द के अंत में 'ना', 'नी', 'ने' का प्रयोग हो उसे वर्ब कहते हैं (जैसे - लिखना, पढ़ना, सोना, आदि)

हिन्दी के वाक्यों में मुख्य वर्ब काल के नियमानुसार होता है जैसे खेलता हूँ, खेला, खेलुंगा, आदि । जब हिन्दी के वाक्य में, वर्ब के अंत में 'ना / ने' का प्रयोग हो तो हम वर्ब से पहले 'To' का प्रयोग करते हैं (जैसे - वह पार्क में अनिता से मिलने जाता है - इस वाक्य में वर्ब 'मिलने' के अंत में 'ने' आया है अतः इस से पहले 'To' का प्रयोग करेंगे - He goes park to see Anita.)

स्थान से पहले जब भी 'come/go' का प्रयोग हो तो 'come/go, के बाद अपनी तरफ से 'To' का प्रयोग करते हैं । इन शब्द 'Home / Abroad / Here / Therre' से पहले 'To' को प्रयोग नही करते हैं ।



Examples
वाक्य Sentence
हम जयपुर जाने की योजना बनाते हैं । We plan to go to Jaipur.
वे विदेश जाने की योजना बनाते हैं । They plan to go abroad.
कृपया यहां आइए । Please come here
कृपया वहां जाइए । Please go there
कृपया मेरे पास आओ । Please come to me.
वह घर जाता है । He goes home.
मां अपने बच्चे की रक्षा करने के लिए झूठ बोलती है । Mother tells lie to protect her child.
वह केवल खाने के लिए घर आता है । He comes home only to take food.
हीना काम करने बोरीवली जाती है । Heena goes to work to Borivali.
नेता वोट मांगने आते हैं । Leaders come to ask for vote.
शिल्पा कॉलेज मस्ती करने जाती है । Shilpa goes to college to enjoy.
कनिका इग्जैम पास करने के लिए कड़ी मेहनत करती है । Kanika works hard to pass the examination.
मैं मेरी गलती मानता हूँ । I admit my mistake.
मनु रोज अखबार पढ़ता है. Manu reads newspaper daily.
सूर्य चमकता है । The sun shines.
तारे चमकते हैं । The stars twinkle.
तुम दोनो खीर पसंद करते हो । Both of you like kheer.
तुम्हारा बेटा तुम्हारे जैसा दिखता है । Your son looks like you.
मेरी घड़ी सही समय दिखाती है । My watch shows the correct time.
मेरा बर्थडे साल में एक बार आता है । My birthday comes once a year.
होली साल में एक बार आती है । Holi comes once a year.

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