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ELC-26th Day - Page-3

26th Day - Today we will learn about Active Passive. Active Passive is a very important Topic. It is to be understood thoroughly.
Active Voice - Subject is main/supreme e.g. Lion eats goat. Passive Voice - Object becomes main/supreme e.g. Goat is eaten by lion. Knowledge of Active-Passive Voice is must for Good English.

Active Passive

Passive Voice of Present Indefinite Tense

Rules of Active and Passive voice (mentioned below) shows that helping verb 'Is/Are/Am' is used with 3rd form of verb for making Passive Voice of Present Indefinite Tense.

In Active Voice of Present Indefinite Negative and Interrogative sentences, use of Do/Does is used but for making Passive Voice only helping verbs - 'Is/Are/Am' are used. Helping Verb in Passive Voice is used as per the Subject of the Passive Voice (Object of Active voice which becomes Subject of Passive Voice). If the Subject of Passive Voice is plural, Helping Verb of plurals will be used irrespective of the fact that in Active Voice, the subject was Singular.

In case of Negative sentence, 'Not' is added after helping verbs and in case of Interrogative sentence helping verb comes in the starting of the sentence.
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In all types of sentences - Positive, Negative & Interrogative, 3rd form of verb is used in Passive Voice.

Active और Passive Voice के नियम (नीचे दिये गए हैं) दिखाते हैं कि Present Indefinite Tense को Passive Voice में बदलने के लिये 'Is/Are/Am' और verb की 3rd form का प्रयोग होता है ।

Present Indefinite Active Voice के Negative और Interrogative वाक्यों में Do/Does का प्रयोग होता है परन्तु Passive Voice बनाने के लिये Helping verb 'Is/Are/Am' का प्रयोग होता है । Passive Voice में Helping Verb Passive Voice के Subject (Active Voice का Object जो Passive Voice में Subject बनता है) के अनुसार इस्तेमाल होती है । अगर Passive Voice का Subject बहुवचन है तो Helping Verb भी बहुवचन subject के अनुसार होगी चाहे Active Voice में Subject एकवचन हो । 

Negative sentence में 'Not' को helping verb के बाद लगाते हैं और Interrogative sentence में helping verb वाक्य के आरंभ में लगाते हैं । 



Rules

Type of Sentence Rule of making Present Indefinite Tense (Active Voice) Rule of converting Present Indefinite Tense (Active Voice) to Passive Voice
Positive Subject + Verb (Ist form) + s/es + Object + (.) Convert Object to Subject + Is/Are/Am + Verb (3rd form) + By + Convert Subject to Object + Remaining + (.)
Negative Subject + Do/Does + not + Verb (Ist form) + Object + (.) Convert Object to Subject + Is/Are/Am + Not + Verb (3rd form) + By + Convert Subject to Object + Remaining + (.)
Interrogative Do/Does + Subject + Verb (Ist form) + Object + (?) Is/Are/Am + Convert Object to Subject + Verb (3rd form) + By + Convert Subject to Object + Remaining + (?)

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Examples

Active Voice Active Voice Passive Voice Passive Voice
क्या तुम अंग्रेजी पढते हो ? Do you read English? Is English read by you? क्या अंग्रेजी तुम्हारे द्वारा पढ़ी जाती है ?
वह मेरी कार चलाती है । She drives my car. My car is driven by her. मेरी कार उसके द्वारा चलाई जाती है ।
वर्तिका कनिका से प्यार करती है । Vartika loves Kanika. Kanika is loved by Vartika. कनिका को वर्तिका के द्वारा प्यार किया जाता है ।
माली रोज पौधों को पानी देता है । The gardener waters plants every day. Plants are watered by the gardener every day. पौधों को माली द्वारा रोज पानी दिया जाता है ।
अध्यापक आजकल विद्यार्थियों को सजा नही देते हैं । Teachers do not punish students now-a-days. Students are not punished by teachers now-a-days. विद्यार्थिओं को आजकल अध्यापक द्वारा सजा नही दी जाती है ।
वह अपनी किताबे गरीब लड़के को देती है । She gives her books to the poor boy. The poor boy is given books by her. गरीब लड़के को उसके द्वारा किताबे दी जाती हैं ।
क्या तुम उसे जानते हो? Do you know him? Is he known by you? क्या वह तुम्हारे द्वारा जाना जाता है ?
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Active Voice Active Voice Passive Voice Passive Voice
वह मेरी सलाह पसंद नही करता है । He does not like my advice. My advice is not liked by him. मेरी सलाह उसके द्वारा पसंद नही की जाती है ।
क्या वे इमर्जेन्सी में मेरी सहायता चाहते हैं? Do they require my help in emergency? Is my help required by them in emergency? क्या मेरी सहायता इमर्जेन्सी में उनके द्वारा चाही जाती है ।
जॉन टाइम पर प्रोजेक्ट पूरा करता है । John completes the project in time. The project is completed by John in time. प्रॉजेक्ट टाइम पर जॉन द्वारा पूरा किया जाता है ।
फियोना भिखारी को खाना देती है । Fiona gives food to the beggar. The beggar is given food by Fiona. भिखारी को खाना फियोना द्वारा दिया जाता है ।
फियोना भिखारी को खाना देती है । Fiona gives food to the beggar. The food is given to the beggar by Fiona. खाना भिखारी को फियोना द्वारा दिया जाता है ।

Please see the last 2 examples. When there are two Objects in the sentence, we can convert any Object to Subject. For ease, please convert the Object to Subject, which is coming just after the Verb. Or you may convert the Object to Subject which you want to emphasize more.

आखिरी 2 उदाहरण देखे । जब दो Object हो तो हम किसी भी Object को Subject बना सकते है । आसानी के लिये, Verb से एकदम बाद वाले Object को Subject बनाओ । या तुम उस Object को Subject बनाओ जिस पर तुम ज्यादा जोर देना चाहते हो ।

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