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ELC-26th Day - Page-2

26th Day - Today we will learn about Active Passive. Active Passive is a very important Topic. It is to be understood thoroughly.
Active Voice - Subject is main/supreme e.g. Lion eats goat. Passive Voice - Object becomes main/supreme e.g. Goat is eaten by lion. Knowledge of Active-Passive Voice is must for Good English.

Active Passive

General Rules of Active Voice & Passive Voice

For changing Active Voice sentence to Passive Voice sentence, Object is converted to Subject and Subject is converted to Object.

Active Voice वाक्य को Passive Voice वाक्य बनाने के लिये Object को Subject बनाया जाता है तथा Subject को Object बनाया जाता है ।

Rule to convert Object into Subject - Object ko Subject banaane kaa Rule Object Word Object Word becomes Subject Word (on conversion) Object Word Object Word becomes Subject Word (on conversion)
1 Me I 5 Us We
2 You You 6 Them They
3 Him He 7 It It
4 Her She 8 Whom Who

सब्जेक्ट को ऑब्जेक्ट बनाने का रूल Subject Word Subject Word becomes Object Word (on conversion) Subject Word Subject Word becomes Object Word (on conversion)
1 I Me 5 We Us
2 You You 6 They Them
3 He Him 7 It It
4 She Her 8 Who Whom

Verb, Forms of Verb and Use of 'By'

Normally Transitive Verbs are converted to Passive Voice. (The Verbs with which Objective is used, are Transitive Verbs. The action of the verb passes over the Object also. Where action of the Verb is limited up to Subject only, then it is Intransitive Verb. e.g. He makes a table. Action (making) of Subject (he) passes over to Object (table) also).

Third form of Verb is used in Passive Voice. Helping verbs - 'Is / Are / Am / Was / Were / Has / Have / Had / Will / Shall' PLUS 'Be / Being / Been' are used as per the Rule of the Tense.

Normally 'By' is used for the 'Subject of the Active Voice which becomes Object of the Passive Voice'. There are few verbs with which appropriate Preposition is used in place of 'By'.

Verb, Forms of Verb and Use of 'By'

साधारणतः Transitive Verb का ही Passive Voice बनता है । (ऐसी verb जिसके साथ Object का प्रयोग होता है, Transitive Verb कहलाती है । Verb का action Object पर भी pass होता है । जहां Verb का action Subject तक ही सीमित हो, वह Instransitive Verb है । जैसे - वह टेबल बनाता है - Action (बनाना) Object (टेबल) पर भी दिखा है)

Passive Voice में Verb की third form का प्रयोग होता है । सहायक क्रियांए - 'Is / Are / Am / Was / Were / Has / Have / Had / Will / Shall' और 'Be / Being / Been' वाक्य के प्रकार के नियमानुसार प्रयुक्त होती हैं ।  TOP

सामान्यतः 'By' का प्रयोग 'Active Voice का कर्ता जो Passive Voice में Object बनता है' के लिये किया जाता है । कुछ Verb ऐसी हैं जिसके बाद 'By' के स्थान पर 'Preposition' का प्रयोग होता है । 

When to Use Passive Voice

जब Subject के बारे में जानने की जरूरत ना हो या Subject का पता ना हो  जैसे -
खिड़की कल तोड़ी गई । 
नई दुकान लूटी गई ।
When there is no need to know about Subject or Subject is not known. e.g.
Window was broken yesterday.
New shop was robbed.
जब Object को महत्व Verb और/या Subject से ज्यादा देना हो ।  जैसे -
यह पेन गुरू जी द्वारा उपहार में दिया गया । 
शीला को चार्ल्स द्वारा गुलाब दिया गया ।
When an Object is to be accorded more importance than Verb and/or Subject. e.g.
This pen was gifted by Guruji.
Sheela was given a rose by Charles.

Change to Passive Voice - Tense-wise Rules

We will learn making Passive Voice of the following separately to gain better understanding.

Present Indefinite Tense Future Perfect Tense
Present Continuous Tense W-Family Words
Present Perfect Tense Imperative Sentence
Past Indefinite Tense Sentences of Modals
Past Continuous Tense Sentences of Infinities
Past Perfect Tense Miscellaneous Sentences
Future Indefinite Tense

Note - The following Tenses cannot be changed into Passive Voice:

1. Present perfect continuous tense
2. Past perfect continuous tense
3. Future continuous tense
4. Future perfect continuous tense

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