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The Verb - Kriyaa

A verb is a word used for saying something about a person or thing. A sentence is incomplete without a verb. Verb is the most important word in a sentence and every sentence must have a verb. A Verb may describe:

A) What action a person or thing does -
e.g. She plays. He speaks. They laugh at fools.

B) What action is done to a person or thing -
e.g. The glass was broken. The bus was damaged. The building was repaired.

C) No action but indicates what a person or thing is -
e.g. He is sick. They are players. He is alive.

क्रिया वह शब्द है जो किसी व्यक्ति या वस्तु के बाबत कहने में प्रयोग होती है । क्रिया के बिना वाक्य अधूरा है । क्रिया एक वाक्य का बहुत महत्वपूर्ण शब्द है और सभी वाक्यों में क्रिया जरूरी है । क्रिया शब्द कहता है:

A) व्यक्ति या वस्तु क्या करता है -
जैसे- वह खेलती है । वह बोलता है । वे बेवकूफों पर हंसते है ।

B) व्यक्ति या वस्तु के साथ क्या Action किया गया -
जैसे- शीशा तोड़ा गया । बस क्षतिग्रस्त की गई । भवन की मरम्मत की गई ।

C) Action नही परंतु व्यक्ति या वस्तु की स्थिति के बारे में इंगित करें -
जैसे- वह बीमार है । वे खिलाड़ी है । वह जिंदा है ।



Kinds of Verbs

KINDS OF VERBS
Main Verbs Auxiliary Verbs
Transitive - Intransitive Verbs Dynamic-Stative Verbs Regular - Irregular Verbs Strong-Weak Verbs Causative Verbs Finite - Non-finite Verbs Primary Auxiliary Verbs Modals

Verbs are subdivided into two main types:
(I) Main Verbs and (II) Auxiliary Verbs

Main Verbs

Main verbs have major meaning in the sentences i.e. sleep, make, buy, finish, complete etc. Main Verb is any verb in English that isn't an auxiliary verb. It conveys a real meaning and doesn't depend on another verb.

"He has bought four books." In this sentence, 'has' is an auxiliary verb and indicate that it is a Present Perfect Tense and 'bought' is main verb which is conveying real and main meaning of the sentence.

There are many kinds of main verbs. A verb can be of different types. Use of the verb describes the type of the Verb.

क्रिया मुख्यतः दो प्रकार की होती है - (I) मुख्य क्रिया और (II) सहायक क्रिया । 

मुख्य वर्ब का वाक्य में बड़ा अर्थ है जैसे - सोना, बनाना, खरीदना, खत्म करना, पूरा करना इत्यादि । मुख्य वर्ब वह वर्ब है ज़ो सहायक वर्ब नही है । यह वास्तविक अर्थ बताता है और किसी दूसरे वर्ब पर निर्भर नही है । 

"He has bought four books ।" इस वाक्य में 'has' सहायक वर्ब है जो यह दर्शाता है की यह प्रेज़ेंट पर्फेक्ट टेन्स है और 'bought' मुख्य वर्ब है जो वास्तविक अर्थ कहता है और वाक्य का मुख्य अर्थ है । मुख्य वर्ब कई प्रकार की होती हैं । एक वर्ब कई प्रकार का हो सकता है परंतु इसका प्रयोग ही बताता है की यह वर्ब का कौन सा प्रकार है ।
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Transitive Verb

A verb which requires an object in a sentence to convey complete meaning is a Transitive Verb. In the absence of object, subject does not convey complete meaning. e.g.: Kanika wrote "______".
Without an object the verb “wrote" does not give complete meaning. If we mention object in the sentence –Kanita wrote a letter or her name – makes it more meaningful.

वह क्रिया जिसे वाक्य में पूरे अर्थ को व्यक्त करने के लिये object की जरूरत होती है, Transitive verb कहलाती है ।

Examples

वह सेब खा रही है । She is eating an apple.
उसने पाठ समझ लिया है । He has understood the lesson.
उसने अपनी मम्मी के लिये नया मोबाइल फोन खरीदा । He bought a new mobile phone for his mother.
उसने फुटबॉल को लात मारी । He kicked the football.
अव्यन ने अपना गृहकार्य पूरा कर लिया है । Avyan has completed his homework.
कनिका वर्तिका को अपने खिलौनें दे रही है । Kanika is giving her toys to Vartika.

Intransitive Verb

A verb which does not require an object in a sentence is an Intransitive verb. Intransitive verb can give complete meaning without an object in sentence for it.

वह क्रिया जिसे वाक्य में पूरे अर्थ को व्यक्त करने के लिये object की जरूरत नही पड़ती, Intransitive verb कहलाती है । 

Examples

कनिका रो रही है । Kanika is weeping.
वह हंस रही है । She is laughing.
बरसात हुई है । It has rained.
सूर्य चमकता है । The sun shines.
चिड़िया सुबह चहचहाती है । Bird chirps in the morning.
यह जल रहा है । It is burning.

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Dynamic Verbs

Dynamic Verbs express a real action done by the subject. The action or result of the action can be seen or felt by the object or an indirect object.

Dynamic verb कर्ता के वास्तविक action को दर्शाती है । क्रिया या क्रिया का परिणाम object पर देखा या महसूस किया जा सकता है ।

Examples

वह क्रिकेट खेल रहा है । He is playing cricket.
राजन ने लड़ाई लड़ी है । Rajan has fought a battle.
मैकॅनिक ने कार ठीक कर दी है । The mechanic has repaired the car.
दुकानदार ने दुकान बंद कर दी है । The shopkeeper has closed the shop.
रामू ने फर्श पर पोंछा लगा दिया है । Ramu has mopped the floor.
रीमा ने एक गुलाब-जामुन को छह दोस्तों में बांट दिया है । Reema has distributed a piece of Gulab-jamun among six friends.

Stative Verbs

Stative verbs express a state, situation or condition rather than an action. Stative Verb describes about the state of mind of the subject, or the relation between the subject and the object. Stative verbs are usually not used in the progressive tenses.

Stative verb क्रिया के बजाय स्थिति या दशा को दर्शाता है । Stative verb कर्ता के दिमाग की दशा या कर्ता और object के बीच का सम्बंध बताता है ।

Examples

वह उसके पिता जी के बारे में सब जानता है । He knows everything about her father.
वह एक महान महिला है । She is a great woman.
हमारे पास भविष्य के लिये काफी बचत है । We have enough savings for future.
तुम एक सैनिक हो । You are a soldier.

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Regular Verbs - Irregular Verbs

On the basis of forming base form of verb to past simple (2nd form) and past participle (3rd form), verb is divided into two type – Regular Verbs and Irregular Verbs.

Kriyaa ke doosare aur teesare roop (2nd form-Past simple and 3rd form-Past participle) ke aadhaar par verb ko do prakaar meiN baanTaa gayaa hai - Regular Verbs and Irregular Verbs.

Regular Verbs (Weak Verbs)

Regular Verbs are also known as Weak Verbs. The Verbs which form their past simple and past participle by adding “-ed" to their base form are called Regular Verbs - for example work – worked - worked, allow – allowed - allowed, play – played – played.

Examples

उसने एक सभा की योजना बनाई है । He has planned a meeting.
कुत्ता उस पर भौंका । The dog barked at him.
टाइगर आदमी को अपने जबड़े से खींच कर ले गया है । The tiger has dragged away the man by its jaw.
पुलिस ने सर्च वॉरेंट जारी कर दिया है । Police has issued search warrant.
उसने अपना सर्वश्रेष्ठ दिया है । He has delivered his best.

Irregular Verbs (Strong Verbs)

Irregular Verbs are also known as Strong Verbs. The Verbs which form their past simple and past participle in different ways but most often by changing the vowel of the Base form(Ist form) are called Irregular Verbs - for example, steal – stole – stolen, sleep – slept – slept, fight – fought - fought.

Verb को second form और third form में परिवर्तित करने के आधार पर verb को दो भागो में बांटा जाता है - Regular Verb और Irregular Verb ।

जिन verb के पीछे '-ed' लगा कर उसकी फ़ॉर्म बदली जा सकती है वह Regular Verb है और जिन verb की फ़ॉर्म अलग तरीके से बदली जाती है वह Irregular वर्ब है ।

Examples

पक्षी आसमान में उड़ गया । The bird flew in the sky.
उसने पांच सूट खरीदे थे । She had bought five suits.
विद्यार्थिओ ने अपने हक के लिये लड़ाई लड़ी है । The students have fought for their rights.
उसने अपने वायदे को निभाया है । He has kept his words.
नेताओं ने कई वायदे किये है । The leaders have made number of promises.

Causative Verbs

We will learn in detail about Causative Verbs in upcoming lessons.

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