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Englishkitab >> Essential Grammar >> Tenses >> Present Indefinite Tense

Present Indefinite (Simple) Tense

In Present Indefinite (Simple) Tense, the action is simply mentioned and there is nothing said about its completeness. It is used to express an action which happens on a regular basis.

Samanya Vartmaan Kaal main samanya kriya ka hee jikra hota hai aur ismay kriya kee purnata kee sthiti kay baaray main kuchh bhi nahi kaha jata. Lagataar ya hamesha honaywali kriya kay liye iska prayog kiya jata hai.

Samanya Vartmaan Kaal kay nichay diye gaye vakyo ko padhiye aur Kriya par dhyan dijiye:

Read carefully the following sentences of Present Indefinite Tense and pay attention on the action of Verb :


Vakya Sentence
Main Ramjas school main padhta hoon. I study in Ramjas School.
Vaha subah jaldi uthta hai. He gets up early in the morning.
Vey subah dair sey uthtay hai. They get up late in the morning.
Surya purva sey nikalta hai. The sun rises in the east.
Main school main padhta hoon. I study in School.
Vaha college main padhta hai. He studies in college.
Kutta bhonkta hai. Dog barks.
Kuttay bhonktay hai. Dogs bark.
Main Gujarat main rehta hoon. I live in Gujarat.
Vaha apnay mata-pita ka kehna manti hai. She obeys her parents.
Pakshi subah chahchahatey hai. Birds chirp in the morning.
Main usey roj padhata hoon. I teach her daily.
Vaha har baat main mujhsey paramarsh karta hai. He consults everything with me.
Main usay bhali bhanti jaanta hoon. I know him very well.
Hum school ekathay jatay hai. We go to school together.
Satya ki sada jeet hoti hai. Truth always triumphs.
Vaha roj padhta hai. He reads daily.
Main Gujarat main rehta hoon. I live in Gujarat.
Tum padhai main dhyan detay ho. You pay attention in study.
Neta election kay dino main bhashan detay hai. Leaders deliver speech during election days.

In the above examples, we notice that neither action is continuous nor action is complete nor it seems one time action. These are usual actions which is done on a regular basis or eternal truths.

Present Indefinite Tense is used to express an action in present time, daily events & usual action which is done on a regular basis and for eternal truth.

Udaharan kay kisi bhi vakya main Kriya na to jaari dikhayee deti hai, na hee purn dikhayee deti hai aur na hee ek-aadh baar honay wali kriya dikhayee deti hai. Yaha hamesha honay wali kriyaay hai. Surya ka purv main ugna ek shashwat satya hai. School main padhna, pakshi ka chehchahana, Gujarat main rehna aadi hamesha kee baat hai. Ek baat note karay - Vakyo kay ant main ‘ta hai’ tee hai’ or ‘tay hai’ dikhayee dey raha hai.

Hindi main Present Indefinite Tense ki pehchaan - Vakya kay ant main ‘ta hai’ tee hai’ or ‘tay hai’ ka prayog hota hai. Vartmaan samay kay action ko batanay kay liye, daily routine aur hamesha honeywalay action kay liye iska prayog kiya jata hai.

In the above examples, we notice that first form of verb is used but in some sentences 's/es' is added with the verb (get-gets, study-studies, bark-barks).

There are different rules for all the four types of sentences of each Tense.

Upar udaharan main hamnay dekha kee kriya kee pehli form istemaal hui hai parantu kisi kisi vakya main verb kay saath 's/es' (get-gets, study-studies, bark-barks) joda gaya hai.

Har Kaal kay haraik parakaar kay vakya kay alag alag niyam hai.



Present Indefinite Tense - Positive

Present Indefinite Tense
Type of Sentence Rule
Positive Subject + Verb (Ist form) + s/es + Object + (.)

In present indefinite tense, if the subject is third person singular, ‘s’ or ‘es’ is added with first form of verb.

Present indefinite tense main verb key saath ‘s’ ya ‘es’ ka prayog tabfi kartay hai jub vakya ka subject third person singular ho.

What is First person, Second person and Third person.
First person I and We Speaking person
Second person you Person to whom spoken
Third person he, she, it, they,Ram Person(s) about whom/which spoken. (Everyone except I, we & you).
Pehla vyakti Main aur hum Bolney wala vyakti
Doosra vyakti Tum Jis vyakti ko kaha jata hai
Teesra vyakti Vah, Vey, Ram vyakti/vastu jiskay baray main kaha jata hai.(Main, Hum aur Tum - 'I, we, you' ko chhod kar duniya ki baaki sub chijay)

He studies in college / I study in school. - Subject 'He' is third person singular, hence 's/es' is added with the verb and 'I' is first person hence 's/es' is not added with the verb.

Dog barks / Dogs bark - Here 's/es' is added when subject is third person singular and 'e/es' is not added when subject becomes third person plural.

He studies in college / I study in school. - Karta 'He' teesra vyakti (ekvachan) hai isliye 's/es' ko verb kay saath joda gaya hai aur Karta 'I' pehla vyakti hai isliye 's/es' verb kay saath nahi joda gaya hai.

Dog barks / Dogs bark - Karta 'Dog' teesra vyakti (ekvachan) hai isliye 's/es' ko verb kay saath joda gaya hai aur jub Karta teesra vyakti hee hai parantu bahuvachan ho jata hai tub verb kay saath 's/es' nahi joda jata.

Present Indefinite Tense - Positive Main Ravivar ko Church jata hoon.
Person Subject Observe addition of 's' or 'es' with verb
Ist Person -Singular I Go to Church on Sunday.
Ist Person -Plural We Go to Church on Sunday.
2nd Person You Go to Church on Sunday.
3rd Person -Singular He/She/It/Ram/Seema Goes to Church on Sunday.
3rd Person -Plural They/boys Go to Church on Sunday.

General rule of adding ‘s’ or ‘es’ with verb

"es" is added with verb which ends with letter" " Examples
"O" Go-goes, Do-does,
"CH" Teach-teaches, Fetch-fetches
"SS" Miss-misses, Kiss-kisses
"SH" Finish-finishes, Wash-washes
"X" Box-boxes, fax-faxes
When last letter of verb is 'y' and second last letter is a consonant, then for adding 's' with the verb, the letter 'y' is replaced with 'ies' jaisay - study-studies, cry-cries, try-tries. When last letter of verb is 'y' and second last letter is a vowel, then we just add 's' after 'y' jaisay - obey-obeys, play-plays, day-days.
In almost other cases, "s" is added with the verb.



A sentence must have a verb. When another verb comes in the sentence, 'To' is used before another verb(s) (other than main verb). e.g. He goes part to see Anita. Here main verb is 'go' which is used as per rule of the tense and another verb is 'see' hence 'to' is used before verb 'see'.

When 'Come or Go' is used before name of places in a sentence, 'To' is used after 'Come/Go' 'To' is not used before the words - 'Home / Abroad / Here / There'

Vakya ka lagbhag pehla shabd Subject hota hai. Jis shabd kay ant main 'na, nee, nay' ka prayog ho usay verb kehtay hai (jaisay-likhna, padhna, sona, aadi)

Hindi kay vakyo main mukhya verb Kaal kay niyamanusaar hota hai jaisay khelta hoon, khela, khelunga, aadi. Jab Hindi kay vakya main, verb kay ant main 'na' ka prayog ho to hum verb sey pahlay 'To' ka prayog kartay hai (jaisay - Vah park main Anita sey milnay jata hai - is vakya main verb 'milnay' kay ant main 'nay' aaya hai atah is sey pahlay 'to' ka prayog karengay - He goes park to see Anita.)

Sthan sey pehlay jab bhi 'come/go' ka prayog ho to 'come/go' kay baad apni taraf sey 'To' ka prayog kartay hai. In shabd 'Home / Abroad / Here / There' sey pehlay 'To' ka prayog nahi kartay hai.
Examples

Vakya Sentence
Hum Jaipur jaanay ki yojna banaatay hai. We plan to go to Jaipur.
Vey videsh jaanay ki yojna banaatay hai. They plan to go abroad.
Kripaya yahan aaiye. Please come here
Kripaya vahan jaaiye. Please go there
Kripaya meray paas aao. Please come to me.
Vaha ghar jaata hai. He goes home.
Maa apnay bachhay kee raksha karnay kay liye jhooth bolti hai. Mother tells lie to protect her child.
Vaha kewal khanay kay liye ghar aata hai. He comes home only to take food.
Heena kaam karnay Borivali jaati hai. Heena goes to work to Borivali.
Neta vote mangnay aatay hai. Leaders come to ask for vote.
Shilpa college masti karnay jaati hai. Shipla goes to college to enjoy.
Kanika exam pass karnay kay liye kadi mehnat karti hai. Kanika works hard to pass the examination.
Main meri galti manta hoon. I admit my mistake.
Manu roj akhbaar padhta hai. Manu reads newspaper daily.
Surya chamakta hai. The sun shines.
Taaray chamaktay hai. The stars twinkle.
Tum dono kheer pasand kartay ho. Both of you like kheer.

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