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Parts of Speech
  1. Sentence
  2. Subject_Predicate
  3. Noun
  4. Pronoun
  5. Verb
  6. Helping_Verb
  7. Adjective
  8. Adverb
  9. Preposition
  10. Preposition List
  11. Conjunction
  12. Interjection

Verb -क्रिया

Verb - A verb is a word that tells us what a person, animal or thing is doing. Verbs show action, so they are also called action words. Some verbs do not show action and indicate existence or state of being like appear, seem etc. Every sentence must have a verb.

क्रिया – क्रिया वह शब्द है जो यह बताता है की कर्ता (व्यक्ति, वस्तु या जानवर) क्या कर रहा है । जैसे - कपिल केला खा रहा है ( 'खाना' क्रिया है जो बताती है कि कपिल क्या कर रहा है) । हिन्दी में वर्ब के अंत में 'ना' आता है जैसे लिखना, पढ़ना, कूदना, इत्यादि. कुछ क्रिया शब्दों में एक्शन नही होता अपितु किसी 'स्थिति' या 'होना' आदि के बारे में बताते हैं - जैसे -महसूस होना, किसी चीज का अस्तित्व होना, आदि ।

Examples: write, speak, read, fight, learn, come, go, seem, feel, etc.
He speaks very slow - (action verb – speak)
I learn English daily – (action verb – learn)
She resembles her mother – (state verb – resembles)
It appears that you have lost your ring – (state verb – appears, action verb – lost)

Transitive Verb

A verb which requires an object in a sentence to convey complete meaning is a Transitive Verb. In the absence of object, subject does not convey complete meaning.

वह क्रिया जिसे वाक्य में पूरे अर्थ को व्यक्त करने के लिए ऑब्जेक्ट की जरूरत होता है, ट्रांसिटिव वर्ब कहलाती है ।

Kanika wrote "______".
Without an object the verb “wrote" does not give complete meaning. If we mention object in the sentence –Kanita wrote a letter or her name – makes it more meaningful.

More Examples:
(1)She is eating an apple. (2) He has understood the lesson. (3) He bought a new mobile phone for his mother. (4) He kicked the football. (5) Avyan has completed his homework. (6) Kanika is giving her toys to Vartika.

Intransitive Verb

A verb which does not require an object in a sentence is an Intransitive verb. Intransitive verb can give complete meaning without an object in sentence for it.

वह क्रिया जिसे वाक्य में पूरे अर्थ को व्यक्त करने के लिए ऑब्जेक्ट की जरूरत नही पड़ती, इन्ट्रांसिटिव वर्ब कहलाती है ।

Examples: (1) Kanika is not weeping. (2) She is laughing. (3) It has rained. (4) The Sun shines. (5) Birds chirp in the morning. (6) It is burning.

Main Verbs –

Main verbs have major meaning in the sentences i.e. sleep, make, buy, finish, complete etc.

मुख्य क्रिया - वाक्य के प्रमुख अर्थ मुख्य वर्ब बताते हैं - जैसे - रोना, बनाना, खरीदना, पूरा करना, इत्यादि ।

Helping Verbs –

They support the main verbs to form the structure of sentence as per specific tense i.e. is, am, are, was, were, has, have, had, will, shall etc. Helping verb indicates the tense of the sentence.

सहायक क्रियाएँ - यह वाक्य की मुख्य क्रिया को निश्चित समय काल के अनुसार वाक्य बनाने में सहायक होती है ।

Sentence वाक्य Main Verb Helping Verb
I am driving a car. मैं कार ड्राइव कर (चला) रही हूँ । driving am - indicates present tense
She is sleeping. वह सो रही है । sleeping Is – indicates present tense.
They were singing a song वे गाना गा रहे थे । singing were - indicates past tense
You will qualify the examination. तुम परीक्षा में पास हो जाओगे । qualify will - indicates future tense
She has reached her destination वह अपनी मंजिल पर पहुंच चुकी है । reached has - indicates present perfect tense


Form of Verbs.

Verb has three forms - (1) Base form - Ist Form (2) Past Simple - 2nd Form (3) Past participle - 3rd Form
For example, Break – broke – broken. “Break" is base form, “broke" is past simple form, and “broken" is past participle form. These three forms may also be named as 1st form, 2nd form and 3rd form of verb.

क्रिया की तीन फ़ॉर्म होती है - जैसे वर्ब तोड़ना की तीन फ़ॉर्म इस प्रकार है - (1) पहली फ़ॉर्म - तोड़ता है (2) द्वितीय फ़ॉर्म - तोड़ा (3) तृतीय फ़ॉर्म - तोड़ा था ।

Meaning Base form - Ist Form Past simple - 2nd Form Past Participle - 3rd form
आज्ञा देना आज्ञा देता है आज्ञा दी आज्ञा दी थी
आज्ञा देना allow allowed allowed
होना be was, were been
आरंभ करना begin began begun
तोड़ना break broke broken
लाना bring brought brought
आना come came come
स्वप्न देखना dream dreamed/dreamt dreamed/dreamt
पीना drink drank drunk
चलना drive drove driven
लड़ना fight fought fought
सीखना learn learned/learnt learned/learnt
छोड़ना leave left left
बनाना make made made
मिलना meet met met
सोना sleep slept slept
दिखाना show showed showed/shown
सिकुड़ना shrink shrank shrunk
चोरी करना steal stole stolen
रोना Weep Wept Wept

Please see the list – Form of Verbs

Regular Verbs - Irregular Verbs

On the basis of forming base form of verb to past simple (2nd form) and past participle (3rd form), verb is divided into two type – Regular Verbs and Irregular Verbs.

Regular Verbs : The Verbs which form their past simple and past participle by adding “-ed" to their base form are called regular verbs, for example work – worked - worked, allow – allowed - allowed, play – played – played.

Irregular Verbs : The Verbs which form their past simple and past participle in different ways, for example, steal – stole – stolen, sleep – slept – slept, fight – fought - fought.

वर्ब को सेकंड फ़ॉर्म और थर्ड फ़ॉर्म में परिवर्तित करने के आधार पर वर्ब को दो भागो में बांटा जाता है - रेग्युलर वर्ब और इरेग्युलर वर्ब ।

जिन वर्ब के पीछे 'ed' लगा कर उसकी फ़ॉर्म बदली जा सकती है वह रेग्युलि वर्ब है और जिन वर्ब की फ़ॉर्म अलग तरीके से बदली जाती है वह इरेग्युलर वर्ब है ।

Modal Verbs

Modal verbs are used to express ability, possibility, intention or necessity. It can be used as helping verb with main verb

रूपात्मक क्रिया - संभावना, इच्छा, सामर्थयता, जरूरत आदि को व्यक्त करने में इस्तेमाल होती है । यह मुख्य वर्ब के साथ सहायक वर्ब के तौर पर इस्तेमाल हो सकती है ।

Modals are:
* - Can, could (ability)
* - May, might (possibility)
* - Will, shall, would (intention)
* - Should (necessity -optional)
* - Must (necessity -a bit compulsion)
* - Ought to (should -moral duty)


Sentence वाक्य
I can climb on the hill. मैं पहाड़ पर चढ़ सकता हूँ ।
He may come at any time. वह किसी भी समय आ सकता है ।
You must complete your homework by evening. तुम्हें शाम तक अपना होमवर्क अवश्य पूरा करना है ।
You ought to look after your parents. तुम्हें अपने माता-पिता का अवश्य ध्यान रखना चाहिए ।
You should not weep. तुम्हें रोना नही चाहिए ।

We shall learn in detail about Modals in upcoming Lessons.

Please Click here to learn in detail about The Verb

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