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Parts of Speech
  1. Sentence
  2. Subject_Predicate
  3. Noun
  4. Pronoun
  5. Verb
  6. Helping_Verb
  7. Adjective
  8. Adverb
  9. Preposition
  10. Preposition List
  11. Conjunction
  12. Interjection

Pronoun -सर्वनाम

Pronouns - Pronouns are words that are used in place of nouns. Pronoun means ‘for a noun’.

सर्वनाम – संज्ञा के स्थान पर प्रयोग होने वाला शब्द सर्वनाम है । सर्वनाम का मतलब 'संज्ञा के लिए' ।

Example: Avyan is also a member of the Jury.
So, he is also responsible for the Judgement.

In the first sentence the word ‘Avyan’ is the name of a person. So Avyan is a noun. When we wrote about the same person in the sentence, we used the word ‘He’ in place of Avyan. ‘He’ is a pronoun.

पहले वाक्य में अव्यन व्यक्ति का नाम है । अव्यन संज्ञा है । उदाहरण में जब दूसरे वाक्य में अव्यन के बारे में कहा गया है, तब अव्यन के लिए 'वह' शब्द का प्रयोग हुआ है । 'वह' सर्वनाम है ।



Example: Jaipur is a pink city. It has many tourist places.
In these sentences, Jaipur is a noun. It is a pronoun.

Rules for Pronouns

A pronoun must agree with the noun it represents. If the noun is singular, the pronoun must be singular; if the noun is plural, the pronoun must be plural and if the noun is feminine, the pronoun must be feminine .

सर्वनाम संज्ञा के अनुरूप ही होना चाहिए । संज्ञा अगर सिंगुलर है तो सर्वनाम सिंगुलर होना चाहिए, संज्ञा अगर प्लुरल है तो सर्वनाम प्लुरल होना चाहिए और संज्ञा अगर स्त्रीलिंग है तो सर्वनाम भी स्त्रीलिंग होना चाहिए ।

Example:
A dog was barking. It was black.
Few dogs were not barking at night. They were also black.

Types of Pronouns

There are eight types of Pronouns. Brief description of each type of pronoun is given in the table given below:


सर्वनाम आठ प्रकार के होते हैं । सभी सर्वनाम का संक्षिप्त विवरण नीचे टेबल में दिया गया है ।



Type Brief description संक्षिप्त विवरण Pronouns
Personal Pronoun Describes a particular person or thing or group. व्यक्ति, वस्तु के बारे में बताता है । I, you, he, she, it, we and they.
Possessive Pronoun Indicates close possession or ownership or relationship of a thing/person to another thing/person. व्यक्ति/वस्तु का दूसरे व्यक्ति/वस्तु के बीच का संबंध बताता है । mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs.
Reflexive Pronoun Describes noun when subject's action turns back upon the subject itself. Reflexive pronouns always act as objects not subjects, and they require an interaction between the subject and an object. सब्जेक्ट के खुद का प्रभाव खुद पर बताता है । himself, yourself, herself, ourselves, themselves, itself.
Demonstrative Pronoun Points out to a person, place, or thing. किसी व्यक्ति, वस्तु, स्थान को इंगित करता है । this, that, these, those.
Relative pronoun Describes a noun which is mentioned before and more information is to be given about it. It joins relative clause and relative sentence. It does double work - the work of a pronoun and also the work of a conjunction. वाक्य में पहले आए हुए नाउन के बारे में बताता है और पहले व दूसरे वाक्य को जोड़ता है । who, whose, which, that, etc..
Interrogative Pronoun Is used to ask a question. प्रश्न पूछता है । who, what, where, which, whose, whom.
Indefinite Pronoun Refer to persons or things in general. वस्तु/स्थान को साधारणतया बताता है । One, many, all, some, somebody, someone, few, many, others, nobody, everybody etc
Distributive Pronoun Used to indicate all the members of the representative group. ग्रुप के सभी सदस्यों को एक साथ इंगित करता है । Each, everyone, either and neither 

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Please study the following table for more understanding of Pronouns
Singular Pronoun एकवचन सर्वनाम
Person Personal subject Personal object Possessive Reflexive पर्सनल पर्सनल ऑब्जेक्ट पॉसेसिव रिफ्लेक्सिव
First I me my/mine myself मैं मुझे मेरा अपने-आप
Second you you your yourself तुम तुम्हारा तुम्हारा तुमने अपने-आप
Third male he him his himself वह वह उसका उसने अपने-आप
Third female she her her herself वह वह उसका उसने अपने-आप
Third neutral it it its itself यह यह इसका इसने अपने-आप
Plural Pronoun बहुवचन सर्वनाम
First we us our ourselves ham हम/हमें हमारा हमने अपने-आप
Second you you your yourselves tum तुम्हारा तुम्हारा तुमने अपने-आप
Third male they them their themselves vey उनका उनके उन्होंने अपने-आप
Third female they them their themselves vey उनका उनके उन्होंने अपने-आप
Third neutral they them their themselves vey उनका उनके उन्होंने अपने-आप



Examples:
Sentence वाक्य Pronoun
I am young मैं जवान हूँ । I
This is my book. यह मेरी पुस्तक है । this, my
This book is mine. यह पुस्तक मेरी है । this, mine
The idea of my wife was excellent. मेरी पत्नी का सुझाव बढ़िया था । my
He loves his dog and it also loves him. वह अपने कुत्ते को प्यार करता है और वह (कुत्ता) भी उसे प्यार करता है । he, his, it, him
It was I who started the dance. यह मैं था जिसने ड़ांस की शुरूवात की थी । it, I
It is winter. It is very cold. सर्दी है । बहुत ठंड है । it, it
I met Vartika who had just returned from USA. मैं वर्तिका से मिला जो अभी USA से वापस आई है । I, who
Each of the participants, got prize. हर एक भाग लेनेवालों को इनाम मिला । each
Either of you can go to office. तुम में से कोई एक ऑफिस जा सकता है । Either, you
I have lost the pen that my teacher gave me मैने वह पेन खो दिया जो मेरे टीचर ने मुझे दिया था । I, that, my, me



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