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Helping (Auxiliary) Verbs Sahayak Kriya

Helping (Auxiliary) Verbs are of two types:
1. Primary Helping (Auxiliary) Verbs
2. Modals

Primary Helping (Auxiliary) Verbs

Primary Auxiliary verbs (also known as a Helping Verb) are verbs that are used together with the main verb of the sentence to express the action or state. It support the main verb to form the structure of sentence as per specific tense. Primary Auxiliary Verbs are of three types:

1. Verbs 'TO BE' - Is, are, am, was, were
2. Verbs 'TO HAVE' - Has, have, had
3. Verbs 'TO DO' - Do, does, did

Sahayak kriya vaha kriya hai jo vakya main mukhya verb kay saath kriya ya sthiti ko darshanay main prayukt hoti hai. Yaha mukhya verb ko pratyek tense kay anusaar vakya banaanay main sahayak hoti hai. Sahayak kriya mukhyatah uprilikhit teen prakaar ki hoti hai.

The verb "TO BE" is used as - Is / are / am / was / were. It’s simple meaning is "to be" or be something. As helping or auxiliary verbs, it is used in tenses, active-passive and direct-indirect about which we will learn in detail later. Here we will learn about its other usages in a sentence.

Simple meaning of verb " TO HAVE" denotes "possession". "Have" is used as - Has / have / had. As helping or auxiliary verbs, it is also used in tenses, active-passive and direct-indirect about which we will learn in detail later. Here we will learn about its simple meaning "Possession".

Simple meaning of verb "TO DO" is used as - Do / does / did. It's simple meaning is "to perform an action" and vastly used in tenses, active-passive and direct-indirect about which we will learn in detail later. Here we will learn about its other usages in sentence.


"TO BE" kriya ko in shabdo dwara English main prayog hota hai -is/are/am/was/were. Iska Hindi main arth hota hai "HONA" aur Hindi main iskay roop hai -hai/hoon/tha/hoga. Inhee artho main iskay roop hai - Rehta hai / hota hai / Hua hai. Yaha tense, active-passive aur direct-indirect main bhi prayukt hoti hai jinkay baaray main aagay vistaar sey jaanengay. Yahaan hum inkay dusray prayogo kay baaray main jaanengay.

"TO HAVE" ka Hindi main prachlit arth hai "paas hona / kabjay main". Paas hona vyakt karnay kay liye har baar 'paas' shabd ka prayog jaroori nahi hai jaisay - 'Meray paas jankaari hai' ko 'Mujhay jankaari hai' bhi keh saktay hai. Yaha tense, active-passive aur direct-indirect main bhi prayukt hoti hai jinkay baaray main aagay vistaar sey jaanengay. Yahaan hum inkay arth "paas hona" kay baaray main jaanengay.

"TO DO" (Do / Does / Did) ka simple arth hai 'Karya Karna' aur baday roop main iska istemaal tenses, active-passive aur direct-indirect main hota hai. Yahaan hum iskay alag prayog kay baaray main jaanengay.

Examples

Main khush hoon. I am happy.
Sachin ghar par hai. Sachin is at home.
Mahika badi mohak ladki hai. Mahika is a very charming girl.
Hum sab vidhyarthee hai. We all are student.
Anu kal anupasthit thee. Anu was absent yesterday.
Tum meray padosee thay. You were my neighbour.
Tum hamesha khush ho. You are always happy.
Indian main sab log kharaab nahi hai. All people are not bad in India.
Aisay avsar durlabh hai. Such occasions are rare.
Mera pait bhara hua hai. My stomach is full.
Meray paanch dost hai. I have five friends
Vartika kay baal lambay hai. Vartika has long hair.
Usay kuchh bhi anubhav nahi hai. He has no experience.
Aap ek cup chaay jaroor ley. Do have a cup of tea.

Use of Helping Verbs

We have seen above examples of Helping Verb. Now we are to learn about:

1. What is Ist person, 2nd person, 3rd person?
2. Which helping verb is used with 1st/2nd/3rd person?
3. What is sentence forming Rules of it?

Upar hamnay sahayak kriya kay kuchh udaharan padhay. Ab hamay inkay baaray main seekhna hai:

1. Pehla vyakti, doosra vyakti, teesra vyakti kya hai?
2. Kis vyakti kay saath kaun see sahayak kriya istemaal honi hai?
3. Vakya bananay kay niyam kya hai?

We give below a table to understand above stated point number 1 & 2.

Person Subject Helping Verb of Present Tense Helping Verb of Past Tense
Ist person I am, have was, had
2nd Person You are, have were, had
3rd Person-Singular He/She/It/Ram is, has was, had
3rd Person-Plural We/They/boys are, have were, had




Sentence Forming Rules

Subject, Verb and Object plays a major roll in forming any sentence. In small sentences 'Object' is missing (He plays.). in some sentences 'Subject' remains silent (Go to school.) and in one-word sentences, only 'Verb' remains in the sentence (Stop., Sit-down.).

Sequence of positive sentence = Subject + Helping Verb + Main Verb (if need be) + Object.

In negative sentence 'Not' is added after Helping Verb and before Main Verb(if any) or Object. In Interrogative sentence, only position of 'Helping Verb' is changed and placed in the beginning. In interrogative and negative sentences, 'Not' is added after Subject and before Main Verb (if any) or Object. The Rule of making sentences of Helping Verb is given below:

English vakya main subject, verb aur object ki mukhya bhumika hoti hai. Chhotay vakyo main 'Object' nahi hota (vaha khelta hai), kuchh vakyo main 'Subject' chhipa hota hai (school jao) aur ek-shabd valay vakyo main kewal 'Verb' hota hai (Ruko, Baith Jao).

Normal vakyo ka kram = Subject + Helping Verb + Main Verb (yadi jaroorat hai) + Object.

Vakya ko negative bananay kay liye 'Helping Verb' kay baad aur Main Verb ya Object sey pehlay 'Not' lagatay hai. Prashanvachak vakyo main, kewal Helping Verb kee position ko badal kar vakya kay shuru main lagatay hai. Prashnavachak aur negative vakayo main 'Subject' kay baad aur Main Verb ya Object sey pehlay 'Not' lagatay hai. Helping Verb kay vakyo ko bananay ka Rule nichay diya hai.

Rule - Helping Verbs - is/am/are/was/were/has/have/had/will/shall
Type of Sentence Rule
Positive Subject + Helping Verb + object (.)
Negative Subject + Helping Verb + not + object (.)
Interrogative Helping Verb + Subject + object (?)
Interrogative-Negative Helping Verb + Subject + Not + object (?)




Examples:
Angrejee ek asaan bhasha hai. English is an easy language.
English ek asaan bhasha nahi hai. English is not an easy language.
Kya English ek asaan bhasha hai? Is English an easy language?
Main tumhara dost hoon. I am your friend
Main tumhara dost nahi hoon. I am not your friend
Kya main tumhara dost hoon? Am I your friend?
Vaha beemar hai. She is ill.
Vaha beemar nahi hai. She is not ill.
Kya vaha beemar hai? Is she ill?
Vey bhukhey hai. They are hungry.
Vey bhukhey nahi hai. They are not hungry
Vaha hamara kirayedaar tha. He was our tenant.
Vaha hamara kirayedaar nahi tha. He was not our tenant
Kya vaha hamara kirayedaar nahi tha? Was he our tenant?
Main imandaar tha. I was honest.
Main imandaar nahi tha. I was not honest.
Kya main imandaar tha? Was I honest?
Kya main ek emandaar karamchari nahi tha? Was I not an honest worker?
Rasta patdhro aur gaddho sey bhara tha. The road was full of stones and holes.
Vaha darjee hai. He is a tailor.
Yaha ek apraadh hai. This is a crime.
Pichhlay saal phasal bahut atchhi thee. The crops were very good last year.
Parso Shukravaar tha. The day before yesterday was Friday.
Sair karna atchhi aadat hai. Walking is a good habit.
Vaha bharosay ka aadmi nahi hai. He is not a reliable person.
Vaha apnay kamray main nahi thee. She was not in her room.
Vaha moorkh ladki hai. She is an idiot girl.
Yaha tumhara mahatvapur karya hai. This is your important work.
Kela sehat kay liye atchha hota hai. Banana is good for health.
Kya vaha bhukha hai? Is he hungry?
Tumhara beta bhukha aur pyaasa hoga. Your son will be hungry and thirsty.
Kya Vey bhukhey nahi hai? Are they not hungry?
Vahaan bahut bandar hai. There are many monkeys.
Yaha padhna bahut mushkil hai. It is very difficult to read.
Poonam ko Somvaar ko aana hai. Poonam is to come on Monday.
Mujhay aap par pura vishwas hai. I have full faith in you.
Meray paas chhatri nahi hai. I have no umbrella.
Kya aapkey pas sau rupyay ka note hai? Have you a hundred rupee note?
Renu kay haath main bahut dard tha. Renu had severe pain in her hand.
Kya us (stri) kay ghungralay baal hai? Has she curly hair?
Aaaj hamay bhukh nahi hai We have no appetite today.
Kya tumhay kal chhutti hai? Have you a holiday tomorrow?
Vartika kay paas bahut khiloney hai. Vartika has many toys.
Kya us (stri) ka apnay pati sey koi lena dena nahi tha? Had she not any dealing with her husband?
Mujhay apni patni sey saccha pyar hai. I have true love with my wife.
Sher kay paas majboot panja hai. Lion has a strong paw.
Kya uskay paas ek bhi paisa nahi tha? Had she not a single penny?
Mera tum par vishwas hai. I have confidence in you.
Vartika kay chehray par hunsee thee. Vartika had a smile on her face.
Meray paas samay nahi hai. I have no time.
Meray paas ek sashakt saboot hai. I have a solid proof.
Vaha usasay milta to hai (jaroor milta hai). He does meet her.
Usnay kal gaana gaya to tha (pakka gaya tha). She did sing yesterday.

Modals

Another Auxiliary Verbs (will, shall, may, can, may, would, should, could, might, must, ought, dare, need, used to) are known as Modal Verbs. We will learn about Modals in upcoming lessons.




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