Your web browser must have JavaScript enabled in order for this application to display correctly.
An easy Way to learn English
Navigation Bar
Englishkitab >> Essential Grammar >> Direct-Indirect-Speech

Direct-Indirect Speech

Statement of a speaker or reporter is known as "Speech or Narration". We can report any Speech to another person in two ways:

(i) Report speaker's Speech to another person in the same words. It is known as Direct Speech or Direct Narration. In Direct Narration, the Speech is kept in Inverted Commas "I ...".

(ii) Report speaker's Speech to another person in our own words without changing the meaning of the Speech. It is known as Indirect Speech or Indirect Narration.



किसी वक्ता की कही बात को कथन (Speech या Narration) कहते है । किसी भी कथन को हम दूसरे व्यक्ति को दो तरीके से बता सकते है: 

(i) वक्ता के कथन को ज्यों का त्यों बताना । इसे Direct Speech या Direct Narration कहा जाता है । Direct Speech को Inverted Commas "मैं..." में बंद किया जाता है । 

(ii) वक्ता के कथन के अर्थ या आशय को बदले बिना अपने शब्दों में बताना । इसे Indirect Speech या Indirect Narration कहा जाता है ।

Terminology of Direct-Indirect Speech

To understand the terminology of Direct-Indirect Speech, let us look at one example.

प्रत्यक्ष-अप्रत्यक्ष कथन की शब्दावली को समझने के लिये आइए एक उदाहरण को देखें । 
TOP

Example

Direct Speech Avyan said to Vartika, "I have broken my toys."
Indirect Speech Avyan told Vartika that he had broken his toys.
Reporter वक्ता को रिपोर्टर कहा जाता है । यहां अव्यन रिपोर्टर है । Speaker is known as Reporter. Here Avyan is Reporter.
Reporting Verb वक्ता द्वारा प्रयुक्त वर्ब को रिपोर्टिंग वर्ब कहते है । यहां 'said' रिपोर्टिंग वर्ब है । Verb used by Reporter is Reporting Verb. Here 'said' is Reporting Verb.
Reported Speech वक्ता द्वारा कहा गया कथन जो Inverted Commas "..." के भीतर रहता है उसे रिपोर्टेड़ स्पीच कहते है । यहां "I have broken my toys ।" रिपोर्टेड़ स्पीच है । यह हमेशा कैपिटल लेटर से शुरू होता है । Speaker's Speech which remains between Inverted Commas "..." is known as Reported Speech. Here "I have broken my toys." is Reported Speech. It is always started with Capital Letter.
Verb of Reported Speech रिपोर्टेड़ Speech में प्रयुक्त हुय वर्ब को रिपोर्टेड़ स्पीच का वर्ब कहते है । उदहारण में यह 'broken' है । Verb used in Reported Speech is known as Verb of Reported Speech. In the example it is 'broken'.

Direct Indirect Rules
We will learn making Indirect Speech of the following topics separately to gain better understanding.
  1. Direct Indirect - Simple
  2. Direct Indirect - Interrogative Simple
  3. Direct Indirect - W-Family Interrogative
  4. Direct Indirect - Imperative
  5. Direct Indirect - Let
  6. Direct Indirect - Optative
  7. Direct Indirect - Exclamatory
  8. Direct Indirect - Miscellaneous


TOP : Home : Essential Grammar : Learning Course : Day To Day English : Vocabulary : Sitemap : Privacy : ABOUT

All Rights are reserved.